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The Importance of Wearing a Seatbelt Essay --…
bible study homework The school year is importance essay well underway, and students from first-grade to importance of wearing a seatbelt post-graduate are settled into the school routineand are no doubt thinking of ways to procrastinate doing their homework. They’re embracing what Winston Churchill once said: #8220;Personally, I#8217;m always ready to learn, although I do not always like being taught.#8221; Every year Beloit College in Wisconsin publishes its Mindset List, a compilation of observations about the essay worldview, assumptions, and cultural touchstones that have shaped the Algebra and Matrix lives of importance of wearing a seatbelt new freshmen moving away from effects of video home and onto campus for the first time. For example, the list noted that for the class of 2017, most of them born in 1995, #8220;GM#8221; is more recognizable as an acronym #8220;Genetically Modified#8221; than for a company that produces automobiles, and #8220;multi-tasking#8221; across many media channels at once is second nature, not a new and bewildering phenomenon. No matter when you were born or what assumptions you bring to the classroom, Bible Gateway can be of very practical help to you in your studies. In this post, we#8217;ve compiled some school resources for importance of wearing essay, all of you who are studentswhether you#8217;re a college freshman starting to Algebra and Matrix Theory sweat about fall midterms or a graduate student pounding away at importance of wearing a seatbelt, a thesis, we hope you#8217;ll find these links and resources useful. Reading, searching, and learning about the food inc essay Bible. Writing a paper about a Bible topic, or need to quote part of the Bible in a paper? Bookmark BibleGateway.com. You may already know that there are dozens of importance a seatbelt essay Bible translations in dozens of of video on children languages in Bible Gateway#8217;s online library, all free to read and of wearing a seatbelt essay, search.
While we hope you#8217;re reading the Bible for your spiritual benefit, we hope you#8217;ll also use Bible Gateway as a reference whenever you need to need include information from the Linear Theory Bible in a paper or school assignment. Here are a few tips for using Bible Gateway effectively for this purpose: If you#8217;re trying to better understand the importance of wearing a seatbelt essay meaning of a Bible passage, our collection of Bible commentaries and dictionaries may be useful. Many of our Bible commentaries can be read right alongside the Bible passage they refer tohere#8217;s how to statement pull up a Bible commentary while reading a Bible passage. If your studies or interests require you to of wearing refer to more than one translation of the Bible (perhaps to compare how a particular passage is translated, or because you#8217;re using the Bible as an aid in learning a second language), you#8217;ll find the side-by-side Bible view indispensable.
If you#8217;re studying the Biblical languages, we have numerous ancient-language Bibles in our library, including an interlinear New Testament that provides a word-by-word breakdown of the original Greek. If English is a second language for you, our Bible library includes several Bible translations that use simple, clear English to make the essay book bangladesh text accessible to of wearing essay non-native speakers. The New International Reader#8217;s Version and food inc essay, Worldwide English New Testament are good places to start. Exploring the claims of Christianity. Our collection of online devotionals may not sound like a promising source of scholarly information about the Bible, but you#8217;d be surprisedseveral of importance essay them are written specifically for thesis, students, and others walk very methodically through key Christian beliefs and their supporting texts in the Bible. Devotions like Insights for importance a seatbelt essay, Students Questions Answered, and importance essay, Investigating the Bible are written with students in mind, and address common questions and challenges people raise about the Bible. For a more academic approach to Scripture, take a look at of wearing, R.C. Sproul#8217;s Essential Truths of the Christian Faith (theology), Faithful Through the Ages (church history), and Tough Questions with R.C. Sproul (apologetics). These devotionals can all be browsed online in Linear Algebra and Matrix, their entirety or received via email. Last but not least, while spending money isn#8217;t something students usually have in much quantity, there is a Bible Gateway store with many books for a seatbelt, students, ranging from Bible commentaries and academic works to devotionals.
Purchases at the Bible Gateway store support the food inc essay ministry of Bible Gateway, and our prices are competitive with other online storesso the next time you need to pick up a book for school or your personal reading, consider looking for it at our store! For example, see what#8217;s available in the Bible Reference, Biblical Studies, Church History, and essay, Theology categories. It#8217;s our hope that you#8217;ll find Bible Gateway as useful to good term you in your studies and paper writing as it is to importance a seatbelt essay you in your personal devotional life! RT @biblegateway: ?TUNE IN TONIGHT! ?9 PM EDT ?https://t.co/y9VfYy5O7R @NelsonBooks@johneldredge#johneldredgehttps://t.co/B4QciRQRFTabout 20 minutes ago Does a word have a literal meaning? @BillMounce@ZonderAcademic#Bible#TheBible#HolyBiblehttps://t.co/7geOUNVxz9about 2 hours ago ?https://t.co/fwUasL23IY What is the “Literal” Meaning of ???????? (James 2:25) https://t.co/9Enn7D1m8s@BillMounce@ZonderAcademic#Bibleabout 2 hours ago The Joy Of Understanding https://t.co/ZwPRetKtuu@craigtowensabout 3 hours ago ?TUNE IN TONIGHT! ?9 PM EDT ?https://t.co/y9VfYy5O7R @NelsonBooks@johneldredge#johneldredgehttps://t.co/B4QciRQRFTabout 3 hours ago. Bestselling author John Eldredge is going to launch his new book, All Things New, tonight on Facebook Live. This is statement speech a revolutionary book about our future based on the simple idea that Heaven is importance essay not our eternal home - the New Earth is. Jesus described the next chapter of our story as the renewal of thesis statement speech all things, (Matthew 19:28). Meaning, literally, the renewal of the earth we love in all its beauty, the renewal of our own being, and all those things which make for a rich life-music, art, food, laughter, all that we hold dear-shall be renewed when the world is importance of wearing made new(Matthew 19:28 NLT).
Watch John tonight at 9pm EDT on Bible Gateway's Facebook page. And share this with your followers. . If our purpose is to become more like Christ, then I think we take the first step on that path when we begin to see things outside of ourselves, no matter how small or insignificant that may sometimes seem. And sometimes we have to leave the comfort of home to Algebra and Matrix Theory get that perspective. Of Wearing! Read more: fal.cn/tHql . Be glad, people of Algebra and Matrix Zion, rejoice in the Lord your God, for he has given you the autumn rains because he is faithful. He sends you abundant showers, both autumn and spring rains, as before. Importance Of Wearing Essay! - Joel 2:23 (NIV) fal.cn/tj5Z . We don’t always get a clear sign from God. There have been many, many times when we have prayed, sought the advice of friends and family, and waited for God to point us in the right direction, only to get. nothing.
For example, when I was trying to decide whether I should quit my job, I agonized for months with no sense of games on children what God wanted me to do. Where was our sign?
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The Importance Of Wearing A Seatbelt - Essay - 977 -…
Plagiarism - What it is and how to avoid it. Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. Each year a number of cases of plagiarism are brought to the attention of the Dean of Arts and the President#146;s Office. Depending on the severity of the offence, students found guilty of plagiarism may lose credit for the assignment in importance a seatbelt essay question, be awarded a mark of of video games essay, zero in of wearing a seatbelt the course, or face suspension from the University. Most simply, plagiarism is Linear Theory, intellectual theft. Any use of another author#146;s research, ideas, or language without proper attribution may be considered plagiarism. Because such definitions include many shades of accidental or intentional plagiarism, these need to be described more fully.
This is the most obvious case: a student submits, as his or her own work, an essay that has been written by of wearing a seatbelt essay someone else. Usually the original source is a published journal article or book chapter. The use of unpublished work, including the work of term, another student , is just as serious. In such cases, plagiarism cannot be avoided by paraphrasing the original or acknowledging its use in footnotes . The work is the property of another author and should not be used. See Example #1. A student may also lift portions of another text and use them in his or her own work. For example, a student might add her or his own conclusions or introduction to an essay. Or a student might scatter his or her own comments through a text taken substantially from another source. These practices are unacceptable. Even with some attribution, the bulk of the importance a seatbelt essay work has been done by term paper questions another. See Example #1.
In many cases, a student will lift ideas, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs from a variety of importance a seatbelt, sources and stitch them together into an essay. These situations often seem difficult to assess. Most essays, after all, are attempts to bring together a range of importance a seatbelt, sources and arguments. Importance! But the line between plagiarism and original work is not difficult to draw. See Example #2. Lazy plagiarism crops up in importance a seatbelt many student essays, and is usually the result of sloppy note-taking or research shortcuts. Examples include: inadvertent use of another#146;s language, usually when the importance of wearing a seatbelt essay student fails to distinguish between direct quotes and general observations when taking notes. In such cases, the essay bangladesh presence of a footnote does not excuse the use of importance, another#146;s language without quotation marks. use of footnotes or material quoted in other sources as if they were the results of questions, your research. sloppy or inadequate footnoting which leaves out sources or page references. Although it may not be the importance of wearing a seatbelt essay student#146;s intention to deceive, it is often difficult for term instructors to distinguish between purposeful and accidental plagiarism. See Example #3.
This is not intended to discourage students from pursuing specific interests. If you want to use a previously completed essay as a starting point for new research, you should receive the instructor#146;s approval and provide her or him with a copy of the original essay. If you want to use substantially similar essays to satisfy the requirements of two related courses, you should get approval from all the importance instructors concerned. It is not hard to draw the distinction between original and food inc essay thoroughly plagiarized work. But the grey areas between these extremes are more vexing. Importance Of Wearing! Students should avoid any hint of dishonesty by maintaining good research habits and paying attention to a few basic rules of writing and documentation. Most written assignments begin with the collection of research notes -- a combination of ideas or quotes from other sources, and the student#146;s own ideas.
Whether you keep notes on index cards, in good a loose-leaf binder, or on old envelopes in a desk drawer, it is important to record and of wearing essay organize them in such a way that vital information is not lost. Keep careful and complete track of sources. Accurately copy the author, title, and other information about the source publication, including the number(s) of the page(s) from which notes or quotes were taken. Distinguish carefully between your ideas and the ideas of others. This is a simple question of intellectual honesty. Linear Algebra Theory! If you use another#146;s conclusions, acknowledge them. If you come to the same conclusions as another on importance a seatbelt essay your own, you should still acknowledge the agreement.
Distinguish carefully between your own words and those of food inc essay, others. If necessary, highlight or use coloured index cards for directly quoted material. As you begin to tie your ideas together in written form, consider the following: Begin by organizing your essay in an original manner . Avoid mimicking the pattern or order of importance of wearing, argument used by others. Remember: this is your humble contribution to a debate or a body of thesis statement speech, research; it is not (in most case) an attempt to summarize or paraphrase the importance essay work of others. As you weave the ideas and food inc essay language of others into of wearing, your work, make clear choices about the use of quoted material . In other words, either quote directly, or state the idea(s) in your own language. Do not mess around with close paraphrases or purely cosmetic changes. See Example #4. Read the first draft carefully . Is the write thesis distinction between your work and the work of others clear and unambiguous?
You might even take an early draft and highlight all those passages that summarize, paraphrase, or quote other sources. Is there enough of your own work left in the essay? Many cases of plagiarism occur in the documentation rather than the body of the essay. You should have a clear idea of the variety of purposes a footnote (or endnote) may serve, and many different ways you can acknowledge the work of others. Of Wearing A Seatbelt! For specific cases See Example #5 . Also note the following: Always record your source of the information; never use or rely on food inc essay another author#146;s footnotes. The footnote should allow the reader to importance of wearing a seatbelt find or check the material being cited. Provide exact page numbers for paper questions direct quotes, and a range of page numbers for more general points. If you included more than one source or reference in a footnote, the relevance or order of the various sources should be clear to the reader. Once your essay is importance of wearing a seatbelt essay, complete, consider each portion that is drawn from another source, and ask yourself the following:
Is the idea or argument expressed entirely my own? Is the general language or choice of words (including even phrases or rough paraphrases) my own? If either answer is no, the work must be credited to the original author. And if the answer to the second question is no, the passage should either be quoted directly or rewritten in the student#146;s own words and good term paper questions credited directly. Complete or Near-Complete Plagiarism.
Despite minor changes to the text, the importance a seatbelt essay passages are substantially unchanged. In the first case, the plagiarist also lifts the footnote from the original. Note that the use of even very brief passages (such as the wings of aspiration) constitutes plagiarism. Use of such passages throughout an essay would constitute complete plagiarism ; use of such passages occasionally would constitute near-complete plagiarism . [This example is drawn from importance, a longer discussion regarding plagiarism in the graduate school essays of Martin Luther King Jr. Students interested in a well-illustrated discussion of student plagiarism, might want to consult this: Becoming Martin Luther King -- Plagiarism and Originality: A Round Table, Journal of American History (June 1991, pp. Importance Of Wearing A Seatbelt! 11-123. The example used below is on p. 25.] The second case illustrates a more typical instance of student plagiarism.
Even the footnote to the original does not excuse the substantial use of the original#146;s language. It is Eros, not Agape, that loves in proportion to paper questions the value of its object. By the pursuit of value in its object, Platonic love is let up and away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Agape, as described in importance essay the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and #145;uncaused#146;, indifferent to effects games human merit, and a seatbelt creates value in those upon whom it is bestowed out of pure generosity. Importance Essay! It flows down from God into this transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies. because the God of grace imparts worth to them by the act of of wearing essay, loving them.* [footnote* is to Anders Nygren, Agape and Eros . (New York, 1932), pp. 52-56] As Nygren set out to contrast these two Greek words he finds that Eros loves in proportion to the value of the object. By the effects games on children essay pursuit of value in a seatbelt essay its objects. Platonic love is let up and away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to essay fair bangladesh the realm of the Ideas. Agape as described in importance of wearing the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and uncaused, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in book bangladesh those upon whom it is importance a seatbelt essay, bestowed out of pure generosity.
It flows down from God into the transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies, because the God of Grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.* [Footnote* is to Nygren, Agape and Eros , pp. 52-56] The strike officially began on May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their resistance. Their strategies were carried out on write statement two fronts. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and cuffs to importance of wearing a seatbelt any laundry. Linear! Also the manufacturers attempted to undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to weather the strike. They tried to create a negative image of the union through the press, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from patronizing the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it claimed it could provide the same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful.
The strike began on May 29, and on a seatbelt essay June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their response. They had two strategies. They pressured the proprietors into holding out book, indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and cuffs to any laundry, and they attempted to importance of wearing essay undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to weather the strike. They also tried to create a negative image of the union through the newspapers, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from using the effects of video games unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it could provide the importance a seatbelt same services for 25 percent less. Importance! Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. 1. 1. Carole Turbin, And We are Nothing But Women: Irish Working Women in Troy, pp. 225-26 in Women of America . Edited by Mary Beth Norton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979). Here two sources are combined to create a new passage. Importance A Seatbelt! As it stands, the passage is clearly plagiarized.
If a footnote were added acknowledging the sources, the effects on children substantial use of the language of the a seatbelt original passage would still open the student to charges of plagiarism. An example of an honest and acceptable use of the information derived from these sources is provided at the bottom of the page. Of Wearing! Note that the acceptable version uses the facts of the original sources, but organizes and expresses them in of wearing the student#146;s own language. Despite the paper strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to importance a seatbelt install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary] aircraft carrier or sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and food inc essay base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in importance Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, by December 1981 the Reagan Administration was working through Argentine intermediaries to install contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps in Honduras. One expert called Honduras the USS Honduras , a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. In the early 1980s, the Reagan Administration made increasing use of Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra, and some housing Argentine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras.
The country, as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier, which he described as the USS Honduras . 2. 2. See Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. Food Inc Essay! 307-310 (quote p. 309); and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139. In this example, the student may have made a sincere effort to write an original passage, but sloppy research and documentation raise the possibility of plagiarism. Importance Of Wearing! Note the characteristic errors: confusion of original and student#146;s language, quotation marks in the wrong place, improper or incomplete footnotes. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary aircraft carrier of sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, the Reagan Administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in good term paper Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras, a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts.
3. In December 1981, American agents--some CIA Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and of wearing base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. Term Questions! 4. 3. Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309. 4. Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983). Students anxious about a seatbelt, committing plagiarism often ask: How much do I have to change a sentence to be sure I#146;m not plagiarizing?
A simple answer to this is: If you have to and Matrix Theory ask, you#146;re probably plagiarizing. This is a seatbelt essay, important. Avoiding plagiarism is not an exercise in inventive paraphrasing. There is no magic number of words that you can add or change to make a passage your own. Original work demands original thought and organization of thoughts. In the following example, although almost all the words have been changed, the student has still plagiarized. An acceptable use of this material is paper, also provided below. Shortly after the two rogues, who pass themselves off as a duke and a king, invade the raft of Huck and Jim, they decide to raise funds by performing scenes from Shakespeare#146;s Romeo and Juliet and Richard III . That the of wearing presentation of Shakespeare in small Mississippi towns could be conceived of as potentially lucrative tells us much about the position of food inc essay, Shakespeare in the nineteenth century. (Lawrence Levine, Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of a Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, 1986), p. 10) Soon after the essay two thieves, who pretend they are a king and a duke, capture Huck and Jim#146;s raft, they try to paper make money by putting on two Shakespeare plays ( Romeo and Juliet and Richard III ). Because the production of Shakespeare in tiny Southern towns is seen as possibly profitable, we learn a lot about the a seatbelt status of Shakespeare before the twentieth century. As Lawrence Levine argues, casual references to Shakespeare in popular nineteenth century literature suggests that the food inc essay identification of highbrow theatre is a relatively recent phenomenon.
5. Note that this version does not merely rephrase or repeat the material from the passage cited above, but expands upon it and places it in the context of the student#146;s work. Varieties of Footnotes. The use of sources can be clarified in a number of ways through careful footnoting. Of Wearing A Seatbelt! Consider the importance of wearing different forms of documentation and acknowledgement in the following: With the election of Ronald Regan, covert operations in Latin America escalated rapidly. 6 The influx of American funds, notes Peter Kornbluh, determined the frequency and destructiveness of contra attachs. 7 In the importance essay early 1980s, the Regan Administration increasingly used Honduras as a base for the contra war.
The Administration set up a number of of video essay, military and training facilities--some American, some contra , and some housing Argengine mercenaries--along the of wearing a seatbelt essay border between Nicaragua and Honduras. [T]he USS Honduras , as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier. 8 These strategies seemed to represent both a conscious acceleration of American involvement in the region, and of video games on children the inertia of importance of wearing, past involvements and failures. 9. 6. The following paragraph is drawn from Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310; and term paper questions Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), pp. 139-149. Note: FOOTNOTE 6 provides general background sources. 7. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), p. 139. Note: FOOTNOTE 7 documents a quoted passage, noting the importance a seatbelt essay exact page location. 8. Observer quoted in Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309.
Note: FOOTNOTE 8 documents a secondary quotation. 9. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in book fair bangladesh Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), stresses the renewal of counterinsurgency under Reagan; Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions , stresses the ongoing interventionism of the U.S. (New York, 1989), p. 307-310. Note: FOOTNOTE 9 distinguishes your argument from essay, that of your sources. Dr. Colin H. Gordon. (Department of History, UBC)
Professor Peter Simmons. (President#146;s Advisory Committee on Student Discipline, UBC)
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Importance Of Seatbelts Essays 1 - 30 Anti Essays
10 Steps To Writing a Great Law School Final Paper. This post is part of Law School Exams, a series of importance of wearing a seatbelt, 10 posts. You can start at the beginning or see all posts in the series. The final paper has become a common law school evaluation method. Here are 10 steps to writing a great law school paper. Find out term, what your professor expects. Ask your professor.
Ask prior students. Ask to see examples of great papers from prior classes. Consider mechanics . Importance Essay! How long should the paper be? Is the page limit really a page maximum, minimum or specific length mandate? What about font, margins, spacing? Find out if the thesis paper and the footnotes should be spaced the importance of wearing a seatbelt same. Do footnotes count in of video on children essay the page count? Consider citations . Does your professor care about proper Bluebooking of footnotes? Should you have oodles of footnotes like in law review articles?
Or would the professor find that tedious and unnecessary? If footnotes count in the page limit, this is a real consideration—make sure you know the answer. Consider organization . Does your professor have a preference as to how the paper should be organized? What about the ratio between background and importance essay, analysis? How about headings and subheadings? Does your professor care?
Consider content . Thesis Speech! Does your professor have any pet peeves or strong preferences regarding what should be in your paper? As an a seatbelt essay, adjunct, I have answered all these questions for Algebra, my students because I have strong preferences. They know what I expect regarding mechanics. Importance Of Wearing A Seatbelt Essay! They know I care little about food inc essay, how they format citations, but that I consider the rigor of their research to be important, that analysis is the most important part of the paper, and that I expect them to be concise, write plainly, and importance a seatbelt essay, edit well. Spend time selecting your topic. This is an write thesis speech, important decision.
A common problem that students make is tackling a topic that is too large or too amorphous to analyze in importance essay the page limit. Another common misstep is to choose a paper topic that does not allow you to demonstrate course knowledge. My best advice is therefore to choose a narrow topic that will allow you to demonstrate mastery of course material. Once you identify the issue that you want to address in your paper, create a research plan. Start by determining how will you get the necessary background information to address the subject.
Spend time getting a handle on the issue. Then dig deeper into cases, statutes, articles, and effects of video games on children, other sources to importance of wearing inform your analysis of the topic. Most students are not rigorous when they research. On at least some level, your professor is an expert on the subject matter and will know whether you invested time in your research. The more discrete the importance course subject, the more likely your professor has deep knowledge of the area and the harder it will be to importance a seatbelt impress him or her with your research. If you get stuck or think you have enough, ask your professor. Most professors who ask students to write papers want students to enjoy writing their papers and to put a great deal of effort into book bangladesh the pursuit. Demonstrate to your teacher that you are indeed trying hard, see if he or she asks you to of wearing a seatbelt try harder. 4. Create an Outline with Subheadings. As with any written work, think before you write. Since a final paper has no time limit, the professor will expect a well-organized paper.
To accomplish this, start with an outline. Then add subheadings. Then bullets. Decide what you want to write before you start drafting. A background section should be short. It should start with the food inc essay taxonomy of the course subject and then drill down to importance of wearing essay the issue addressed in the paper.
Generally, this should not take that long, maybe one-third of the paper. If your background section is longer than that, you have a problem. Either your topic is too broad or you are saying too much. Finish the first draft of your paper without fussing over the background length or brevity. Get a full first draft and then work on of video essay, refining it. Essay! A law school paper allows you to demonstrate mastery of the course material by applying it to a problem that interests you.
Do not think the self-directed paper format means the professor does not care whether you understand the concepts learned in class. That is not the case. Good Paper! Think of essay, it this way: the food inc essay professor has chosen to allow you to identify the fact-pattern to which you will apply what you learned in a seatbelt essay the course. Make sure that you address major course themes, as they apply. If you find that no (or few) course themes apply to your topic, do yourself and your GPA a favor and pick a new one. In the paper, you will identify the Linear Theory problem and explain the facts.
Then you will define the relevant authority. Together those comprise your “background” section. Importance Of Wearing! Once you have done that, the real work begins. The bulk of your paper should involve rigorous analysis. Consider the food inc essay Supreme Court cases you read in Con Law or pick up a law review article from a top school. Try this: write a quick outline of what you think should be in your analysis and then ask a series of questions about the points you raise. Here are some questions that tend to work well in a variety of situations: why? why not? who disagrees with this? what is the logical extension of that thought? is that good policy? who should bear the risk? Work hard on the analysis in your paper and it will stand out. Once you have a full first draft in essay hand, read through it and see if it flows logically. Is anything missing? When you are confident that it is food inc essay all in there, tighten your writing.
Often, a first draft is twice as long as it needs to be. Be critical. Or give it to a good writer and ask that person to be critical. Mark it up. Read each sentence and see if it really needs to be in the document. If so, could it be shorter? Do not use 10 words when you could you two.
Make your point and move on. Sloppy papers are hard to read and indicate to me that the student did not really try. Writing well takes time, and lots of importance, red ink. Statement Speech! Invest that time in your paper. It will pay off. This is the only law school “exam” format without a time constraint and professors expect you to edit.
Use proper grammar, punctuation and spelling. Print out the document and proofread it to make sure you catch even minor errors. Many professors offer to review topics, outlines, and rough drafts. If yours does, accept the offer. I require my students to hand in a topic and a short outline. I invite them all to hand in long outlines or rough drafts prior to the end of the last class. Importance! Few of them take advantage of this. If you had the opportunity to get such feedback on importance a seatbelt, an exam, you would take it, right? Do that with papers, too. Importance A Seatbelt Essay! Be one of the essay bangladesh few students that do and see the benefit to your writing ability and your GPA.
Originally published 2009-11-13. Revised and republished 2016-12-08. Nena Lenz in an Officer at Fredrikson Byron, where she focuses primarily on importance of wearing a seatbelt essay, government contracts and grants, and also practices in book fair bangladesh the areas of public-private partnerships, Indian law and political law. Clio Cloud 2017 Podcasts: Tech, Data, and importance, Millennials. Bloodlines (2017 Short Fiction Contest Winner) Fish Out of games on children, Water (2017 Short Fiction Contest Runner Up) How Lawyers Work: Christopher P. Importance Of Wearing A Seatbelt Essay! Kriesen, Innovator, Entrepreneur, and Storyteller. Importance Of Wearing Essay! One response to #8220;10 Steps To Writing a Great Law School Final Paper#8221; I taught a master#8217;s program as an assistant professor at The George Washington U., to include a course in negligence, and one in evidence. Of Wearing A Seatbelt Essay! I insisted that my students write a research paper no longer than ten (yes, only ten) pages, plus citations that could be found in a law library #8212; not Internet cites. I explained to them that ten pages required very tight writing #8212; clear, concise, controlled. In my first few classes, I received tomes of weighty legalese, to include Supreme Court decisions that were not on point. I finally declared that while Learned Hand and good term paper, the Federal Rules of Evidence were fun reading, I would read only the importance of wearing a seatbelt first ten pages of effects of video essay, any paper submitted for credit. Essay! As Beethoven said, the rule is Exposition, Development, Recapitulation.
When you finish what you need to Algebra say, stop writing. A Seatbelt! The original content within this website is essay book fair bangladesh 2017. LAWYERIST, LAWYERIST LAB, and LAWYERIST SITES are trademarks registered by Lawyerist Media, LLC.
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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to listening comprehension in EFL environment. First, the importance of listening comprehension is a seatbelt essay discussed. Linear Algebra And Matrix Theory! Second, difficulties in listening comprehension for EFL learners are illustrated.
Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to improvement, as measured by importance, pre-tests and post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and of wearing, characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed. Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. The Importance of Listening Comprehension. The increased importance of listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to of wearing essay, the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). There has been a shift from non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Effects! Before World War II, the teaching of reading was given the most attention while that of listening comprehension was the most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the predominant audio-lingual approach in of wearing a seatbelt, the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the teaching of listening comprehension was still minor. Good Paper! With the of wearing essay, increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985).
Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in Linear, language teaching. On the a seatbelt essay, one hand, technological advances and the growing awareness of the write thesis, importance of listening in importance, the world have made listening even more important in effects of video games essay, the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). Of Wearing A Seatbelt! In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the food inc essay, other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in a seatbelt, listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at the beginning level should be allowed to Linear and Matrix, keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to speak and of wearing a seatbelt essay, write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at a beginning level should focus on questions, developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the raw material for importance, learners to process in language learning. Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Essay! Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the target language is an impetus, not merely an obstacle, to a seatbelt, language learning as well as to communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the importance of food inc essay, listening comprehension has resulted in an increased number of listening activities in students’ textbooks and even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984).
Several studies have found that through the use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in Listening Comprehension for EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for EFL learners is that they are less likely to share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to something the individual already knows. This applies as much to second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in one’s native language. The empirical research in importance, the related field has come to be known as schema theory and has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and of the opening quote from Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the importance of background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977).
According to schema theory, a text provides directions for and Matrix, listeners or readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge. This previously acquired knowledge is called the listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to the listening task plays a vital part in interpreting the material, and should be considered in the evaluation of learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on of wearing, schema theory, the process of interpretation and comprehension is guided by the principle that every input is mapped against Linear Algebra, some existing schema and that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Efficient language comprehension requires the ability to relate the textual input to one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on one’s linguistic knowledge but also the knowledge of the of wearing a seatbelt, world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to Richards (1983), much of of video games on children essay, our knowledge of the world is of wearing a seatbelt organized around scripts, which is write thesis statement our memory about of wearing a seatbelt particular situations, the goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and bangladesh, the information needed to understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by importance, the listeners from their repertoire of scripts. This means that the connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and can be inferred. Without the right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of cultural reference and speech, discourse patterning in their own language and culture; their individual scripts may differ in importance of wearing a seatbelt, certain degree and Theory, content from target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to a seatbelt essay, understand what they hear. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989).
The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Term Paper! Accent is potentially an important variable in listening comprehension (Buck, 2001). Many foreign-language learners who are used to essay, the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to effects of video games on children, listening to a variety of accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). A Seatbelt! Besides, learners who have more experience in good term questions, listening to importance, and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984).
Therefore, it seems reasonable to and Matrix Theory, conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to of wearing, adjust to the voice if the food inc essay, accent is very different from any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). The third difficulty is that EFL learners are less capable of perceiving prosodic features in a seatbelt essay, English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). Importance Of Wearing A Seatbelt Essay! The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in of wearing a seatbelt essay, the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the length of time required to pronounce an Linear Algebra and Matrix, utterance depends upon the number of syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). What this means is that the time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and the remaining syllables in the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by of wearing essay, the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995). Term Paper! As a stressed-timed language, the importance of wearing, following English sentences would take about the statement speech, same amount of time to importance of wearing, articulate, even though the number of syllables contained in each sentence is write thesis speech very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995):
The CAT is INTerested in importance a seatbelt, proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the stress-timed language is of wearing that the words between the stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an important factor in rapid and efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to importance of wearing, the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the bangladesh, complex set of rules that determine the pronunciation of connected speech and be able to importance of wearing a seatbelt, identify words according to book fair, the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Any lack of such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in importance a seatbelt, their modified form in an utterance whereas the presence of phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for second-language listeners. Good Questions! In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers’ and non-native speakers’ ability to perceive stress by addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to sentence stress location, while only a small number of non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in importance of wearing a seatbelt, learners’ (p.
38). Still, Bond and Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to know how the sound system works in English speech, in order to be able to process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and pausing could cause perceptual problems and thus comprehension errors for non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to listen to a passage of essay fair, spontaneous speech, about 210 words long.
Results indicated that nearly one-third of of wearing a seatbelt, all perception errors were related to hesitation phenomena. These errors were due to listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of book bangladesh, words, or to misinterpreting parts of importance of wearing, words as hesitations (Voss, 1979). In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the food inc essay, only one among these researchers who used real and spontaneous speech. All of the other studies used a written text read aloud. Importance! Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and effects games on children essay, process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in favour of top-down processing. Essay! There are indications that in some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). In the researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into essay book fair, the text resulted in lower levels of comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the ability to deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of of wearing, speech (Richards, 1983).
The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the amount of pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983). Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and write statement, hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the of wearing a seatbelt, speakers talk faster, and the weight of the evidence suggests that the decline in comprehension is speech rather slow until a threshold level is reached, at which time an a seatbelt, increased speech rate leads to Algebra Theory, a much more rapid decline in comprehension (Buck, 2001). Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for importance of wearing, lower-intermediate learners to understand. He found that this level of students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the good term paper questions, effects of three different speech rates (127, 188, and importance essay, 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and importance essay, worse at the higher rates. On the other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to importance a seatbelt essay, 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of of wearing, intermediate- and advanced-level L2 learners. As for the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m. Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m.
Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm. Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of 165 to 180 words per minute for importance of wearing a seatbelt essay, native speakers of essay book bangladesh, English. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is one of the variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of of wearing essay, text used, and effects games on children essay, amount of importance essay, background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is a seatbelt essay that learners tend to think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984).
Most foreign-language learners run into a seatbelt, a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984). From the Linear and Matrix, anecdotal evidence in the research of O’Malley et al. (1989), it is found that ”effective listeners seemed to be aware when they stopped attending and made an effort to redirect their attention to the task’ (p. Importance! 428) and ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to be aware of their inattention’ (p. 428). Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at decoding than native listeners and try to paper, interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and taking a broader view.
Compared with reading and writing, listening is more stressful for learners since it involves serious time constraints on processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984). 3. Of Wearing Essay! Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in effects of video, language learning include what is usually referred to as top-down, bottom-up and importance of wearing a seatbelt, interactive processing. 3.1. Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to create appropriate and plausible expectation of what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). Top-down processing occurs as the perceptual system makes general predictions based on general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the input, either visual or auditory, for food inc essay, information to fit into, or verify these predictions, and thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). In the study of Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to listen to, basing their predictions on the questions they previewed prior to listening. Of Wearing! In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the local cues.
Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for paper, various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to facilitate learners’ top-down processing and help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2. Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the listener focuses on individual words and importance essay, phrases by decoding the linguistic input rapidly and accurately to bangladesh, refute implausible interpretation, and achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the importance of wearing a seatbelt, listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990).
Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by Van Dijk and of video games, Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to relations and links between the facts denoted by local clauses and importance, sentences, and the other is global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. Based on the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to term questions, top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and skills in the foreign language, they bring into semantic and other knowledge related to importance of wearing a seatbelt, top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. Linear Algebra Theory! Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and importance of wearing essay, a recorded account of the same events that can be implemented in teaching listening. Food Inc Essay! Another bottom-up activity for beginning listeners is to listen to a series of sentences and of wearing essay, then circle one (out of three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001). 3.3.
Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is considered by some researchers as an interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and thesis statement, as a continuous modification of a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and importance of wearing, pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by effects on children essay, bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). Importance! According to write, Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of top-down processing; similarly, it is when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to importance of wearing a seatbelt essay, rely more on the sensory level and to hear clearly what is statement being said by bottom-up processing, and such view of perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by constantly checking it against importance, the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990). In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of listeners monitored the incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the listening text. Book Fair! Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the incoming information. Importance Of Wearing! In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is importance of wearing only fragmentary for efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of schemata and use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to of wearing, construct meaning. Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and readers use the knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details.
According to Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and of video, bottom-up processing should be occurring at all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the importance of wearing a seatbelt, listeners will be sensitive to information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the text; top-down processing helps the thesis statement, listeners to resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up processing. There is continuous discussion about the importance of wearing, role of good, top-down and importance, bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing.
In the statement speech, researches of Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and essay, readers both attend mostly to local details as in thesis speech, the bottom-up processing. Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to segments and other lower-order units on the basis of hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p. Importance! 148). In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in top-down processing were found to be beneficial in food inc essay, listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of incorporating cognitive strategies. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and reading of first-, second-, and third-semester university students of German. He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks.
Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of of wearing essay, English and good term questions, found that while students appeared to importance a seatbelt, make a simultaneous use of bottom-up and write, top-down processing with an importance a seatbelt, easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on fair, background knowledge and hardly use other cues in listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and experience to help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Importance A Seatbelt! Thus, providing background information and previewing are particularly important and effects on children essay, effective for the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982). Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on bottom-up processing than on top-down strategies. Schemata in essay, top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of essay book, their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and importance of wearing a seatbelt, rock groups, and he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of term paper, data that were clearly incompatible.
It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from essay, Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension. Results from previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and and Matrix Theory, Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and importance of wearing a seatbelt essay, McGruddy (1995). Johnson and good term paper, Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). There were no significant differences between the scores of pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at the post-test of EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. In the research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in pre-test and post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test.
On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in terms of listening instruction. In the study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the trained group of of wearing a seatbelt, 31 freshman students made significant gains in scores during the of video, period of listening instruction. In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of importance of wearing a seatbelt essay, Spanish at good, a university received listening instruction. A Seatbelt! Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of essay book fair, learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of significant improvement in listening comprehension of the experimental group.
In addition, in the study of Graham and Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of French as a foreign language in importance a seatbelt essay, England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on term questions, the theory of Piaget and of wearing, Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the elementary school students, ranging from thesis, 7 to 12 years old. Children in the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Importance Of Wearing A Seatbelt! Operations are associated with personal experience and are in concrete situation, but not in essay bangladesh, abstract manipulation. Children’s learning in this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments.
Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on of wearing essay, the concept of zone of proximal development proposed by Vygotsky (1978). Zone of proximal development refers to the differences between the level of actual development and the level of questions, potential development; the level of actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of learning; rather, it refers to of wearing a seatbelt essay, the possible, learnable scope created by essay book bangladesh, the interaction between people and importance of wearing essay, its changes with the development of individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the write statement, instructor and the learners. Importance A Seatbelt Essay! In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to foster learners’ cognition with the food inc essay, consideration of learners’ development level. The interaction which is the scaffolding in a seatbelt, the teaching process generally follows the a seatbelt essay, pattern of importance essay, question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the teacher, and Algebra and Matrix Theory, then replying from students. According to Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from a seatbelt essay, adolescents, and adults in many ways. Children tend to respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words. They learn from everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught. Their understanding comes not just from food inc essay, explanation, but also from importance of wearing a seatbelt essay, what they see and hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and interact with.
In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of these characteristics, teachers at this level need to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourages students to get information from a variety of sources (Harmer, 2001). In addition, in the process of scaffolding in teaching, it is essential for teachers to be skilful in asking questions to activate students’ thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and food inc essay, broadening the language development of the students. Teachers are suggested to of wearing a seatbelt, avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to term paper, provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to encourage the interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in groups to develop good relationships, and need to plan a range of activities for a given time period, and to of wearing a seatbelt essay, be flexible enough to move on to the essay book, next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Research Questions of the importance of wearing a seatbelt essay, Present Study. Listening comprehension is important for food inc essay, EFL learners. Beginning instruction in of wearing a seatbelt essay, a second language should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to.
It is likely that listening instruction in elementary school puts more emphasis on bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to resort more to book, bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of different advance organizers on listening comprehension of undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the importance of wearing a seatbelt essay, above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of listening instruction. Algebra Theory! The effect of of wearing essay, listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent in effects on children essay, previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and high school students. Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of importance a seatbelt essay, listening instruction as well as the listening processing of food inc essay, elementary EFL learners.
The present study focused on three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on of wearing a seatbelt, top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the effects essay, two groups of participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of essay, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in essay bangladesh, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
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