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The Red Badge Of Courage Analysis …
big essay fonts The Modern Language Association (MLA) provides explicit, specific recommendations for of courage, the margins and spacing of academic papers. (See: Document Format.) But their advice on armin vit resume, font selection is less precise: #8220;Always choose an easily readable typeface (e.g. Times New Roman) in which the regular style contrasts clearly with the italic, and set it to a standard size (e.g. Red Badge Of Courage? 12 point)#8221; ( MLA Handbook , 7th ed., §4.2). Linear Algebra Theory? So which fonts are #8220;easily readable#8221; and have #8220;clearly#8221; contrasting italics? And what exactly is a #8220;standard#8221; size? For academic papers, an #8220;easily readable typeface#8221; means a serif font, and red badge a #8220;standard#8221; type size is between 10 and 12 point.
Serifs are the tiny strokes at the end of vit resume, a letter#8217;s main strokes. Serif fonts have these extra strokes; sans serif fonts do not. Of Courage Essay? ( Sans is French for #8220;without.#8221;) Serif fonts also vary the thickness of the letter strokes more than sans serifs, which have more uniform lines. Books, newspapers, and magazines typically set their main text in a serif font because they make paragraphs and long stretches of food inc essay, text easier to of courage, read. Sans serifs (Arial, Calibri, Helvetica, Gill Sans, Verdana, and so on) work well for single lines of Algebra and Matrix Theory, text, like headings or titles, but they rarely make a good choice for body text. Red Badge? Moreover, most sans serifs don#8217;t have a true italic style. Their #8220;italics#8221; are really just #8220;obliques,#8221; where the letters slant slightly to effects of video on children essay, the right but keep the same shape and spacing.
Most serifs, on the other hand, do have a true italic style, with distinctive letter forms and more compact spacing. Since they#8217;re more readable for long passages and have sharper contrast in their italics, you should always use a serif font for the text of an red badge of courage essay, academic paper. The standard unit for armin vit resume, measuring type size is the red badge of courage essay, point . A point is 1 ⁄ 72 of an armin, inch, roughly one pixel on a computer screen. The point size of a font tells you the red badge, size of the Algebra and Matrix Theory, #8220;em square#8221; in which your computer displays each letter of the red badge, typeface. How tall or wide any given letter is depends on how the Linear Algebra and Matrix, type designer drew it within the em square, thus a font#8217;s height and width can vary greatly depending on the design of the red badge essay, typeface. That#8217;s why if you set two fonts at the same point size, one usually looks bigger than the other. Write Thesis Statement Speech? Compare the red badge of courage essay, following paragraphs, both set at 12 point but in different fonts: For body text in academic papers, type sizes below 10 point are usually too small to read easily, while type sizes above 12 point tend to look oversized and bulky. So keep the good term paper, text of red badge of courage, your paper between 10 and Linear and Matrix 12 point . Some teachers may require you to red badge of courage, set your whole text at 12 point. Yet virtually every book, magazine, or newspaper ever printed for food inc essay, visually unimpaired grown-ups sets its body type smaller than 12 point. Newspapers use even smaller type sizes. The New York Times , for example, sets its body text in a perfectly legible 8.7 point font.
So with proper spacing and margins, type sizes of 11 or 10 point can be quite comfortable to read. I usually ask my students to use Century Schoolbook or Palatino for their papers. Red Badge Essay? If your teacher requires you to a good or bad essay, submit your papers in a particular font, do so. (Unless they require you to of courage, use Arial, in which case drop the class.) One thing to consider when choosing a font is how you submit your essay. When you submit a hard copy or a PDF, your reader will see the text in whatever typeface you use. Most electronic submission formats, on the other hand, can only Linear Algebra, use the essay, fonts available on food inc essay, the reader’s computer. So if you submit the paper electronically, be sure to use a font your instructor has. What follows is red badge, a list of write speech, some widely available, highly legible serif fonts well-suited for academic papers.
I’ve divided them into three categories: Microsoft Word Fonts, Mac OS Fonts, and of courage essay Universal Fonts. Microsoft Word comes with lots of fonts of varying quality. If your teacher asks you to submit your paper in Word format, you can safely assume they have Word and all the fonts that go with it. Morris Fuller Benton designed Century Schoolbook in 1923 for elementary-school textbooks, so it#8217;s a highly readable font. It#8217;s one of the best fonts available with Microsoft Word. Because it#8217;s so legible, U. Algebra And Matrix? S. Supreme Court Rule 33.1.b madates that all legal documents submitted to the Court be set in Century Schoolbook or a similar Century-style font. Hermann Zapf designed Palatino in 1948 for titles and headings, but its elegant proportions make it a good font for body text. Named for Renaissance calligrapher Giambattista Palatino, this font has the beauty, harmony, and grace of fine handwriting. Palatino Linotype is the red badge of courage essay, name of the font included with Microsoft Word; Mac OS includes a version of the same typeface called simply Palatino.
Microsoft Word includes several other fonts that can work well for academic essays: Bell MT, Californian FB, Calisto MT, Cambria, Garamond, and food inc essay Goudy Old Style. Essay? Apple has a well-deserved reputation for design excellence which extends to its font library. But you can’t count on any of these Mac OS fonts being on a computer that runs Windows. Finding his inspiration in the typography of Pierre Simon Fournier, Matthew Carter designed Charter in 1987 to look good even on crapy mid-80s fax machines and was andrew printers. Its ability to red badge essay, hold up even in term low resolution makes Charter work superbly well on screen. Bitstream released Charter under an open license, so you can add it to your font arsenal for free.
You can download Charter here. In 1991 Apple commissioned Jonathan Hoefler to design a font that could show off the Mac#8217;s ability to handle complex typography. The result was Hoefler Text, included with every Mac since then. The bold weight of Hoefler Text on of courage essay, the Mac is excessively heavy, but otherwise it#8217;s a remarkable font: compact without being cramped, formal without being stuffy, and distinctive without being obtrusive. If you have a Mac, start using it. Iowan Old Style, designed by Iowan sign painter John Downer, emulates 15th century Venetian typefaces by Nicolas Jenson and Francesco Griffo, but it blends these designs with more modern features that make it ideal for extended, immersive reading. Like Charter, Iowan Old Style comes with the iBooks app in OS X Mavericks (released in 2013).
If you#8217;re running an older version of vit resume, Mac OS, you won#8217;t have these fonts. Other Mac OS fonts you might consider are Athelas (another iBooks font), Baskerville, and Palatino. Anyone you send your document to will have these fonts because they’re built in to both Windows and of courage essay Mac OS. Armin? Matthew Carter designed Georgia in 1993 for maximum legibility on computer screens. Georgia looks very nice on web sites, but in print it can look a bit clunky, especially when set at 12 point. Like Times New Roman, it#8217;s on every computer and is quite easy to read. The name #8220;Georgia#8221; comes from a tabloid headline: #8220;Alien Heads Found in Georgia.#8221; Times New Roman is, for better or worse, the standard font for academic manuscripts. Many teachers require it because it#8217;s a solid, legible, and red badge essay universally available font.
Stanley Morison designed it in effects of video on children essay 1931 for The Times newspaper of London, so it#8217;s a very efficient font and legible even at very small sizes. Times New Roman is always a safe choice. But unless your instructor requires it, you should probably use something a bit less overworked.
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Red Badge of Courage - Essay - …
11 Tips from HR Pros on Making Your Resume Stand Out. Red Badge Of Courage! If you want to get your resume out of the slush pile and into Linear Algebra the hands of someone who’s ready to interview you for red badge of courage essay, the job, you have to make sure it's accurate and chock-full of qualifications, skills, and experience. But sometimes that's still not enough to Linear Theory make your resume stand out from red badge of courage a sea of equally qualified candidates. We talked to a number of human resources professionals, recruiters, and hiring managers to food inc essay get their advice for job seekers. If you're on the hunt for a new job, here's what they say you should do to make a lasting impression. Essay! You want to grab the hiring manager's attention right off the bat, says Rebecca Barnes-Hogg, a recruiter and author of The YOLO Principle: The Ultimate Hiring Guide for Small Business . Today's reality is that you have less than 10 seconds to get the attention of the person who reads your resume, she says. The first two sentences on your resume are the most important. These days, most experts recommend skipping the term paper, objective statement, though. Instead, consider a short description of your role, placed right underneath your contact info. I like to see a very short summary at the top that gives me a sense of who the individual is, says human resources professional Jana Tulloch.
The best way to grab the attention of red badge essay, a hiring manager is to use their own words from the job posting on Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory, your resume and cover letter, says Lauren McAdams, a career advisor and of courage essay, hiring manager at ResumeCompanion.com. There are probably a few key things they are looking for, and using their exact language on your resume is going to draw their attention, McAdams says. Make your resume sound like it's directly replying to the job post. This is armin also a great way to organically add keywords to make it through the applicant tracking system, she adds. Speaking of which. Most companies have some form of automated applicant tracking system that will assign a rank to each resume. If you are not an 8 or higher, your resume will probably never be read by a human, warns Barnes-Hogg.
Think in terms of SEO and keywords. Essay! This means using buzzwords that highlight what the Linear Theory, employer is likely seeking: words like achieved , managed , and delivered , for example. You might also list industry-specific skills—especially ones that are mentioned in the job description—where they seem appropriate. Overdo it, and it'll be obvious you're trying to game the system. You probably want to red badge squeeze in armin all the essay, highlights you can, but keep in mind that your resume should also be easy on the eyes. Food Inc Essay! Resumes are often pretty boring and red badge essay, repetitive, says Tulloch. If someone wants to make theirs stand out, keep it simple, uncluttered, and food inc essay, highlight the important stuff. Realistically, it's a pretty quick glance to of courage essay start with and if the resume looks too time-consuming or confusing, it'll likely get tossed aside.
Tulloch adds that she likes to see quick hits that highlight applicants' core competencies, like strategic planning, budget management, staff oversight, team training, and Algebra and Matrix, so on. When it comes to work history, be sure to highlight what you brought to the company and how you added value, Tulloch says. Try to keep everything included on a single page, too, says Brad Stultz, a Human Resources Coordinator for Totally Promotional. A candidate wants to draw in a hiring manager with their resume. The quickest way to the bottom of the stack is a poorly composed and constructed resume, he says. 5. ASK NOT WHAT YOUR EMPLOYER CAN DO FOR YOU. You’re certainly trying to sell yourself (or at least your professional skills) when you create your resume, but it's useful to think about your employer's needs, too. When you know what they're looking for, you can hit on their pain points, so to speak, and give them what they need. If an employer is red badge looking for thesis, a web designer, for example, you may want to highlight the fact that you’ve helped companies increase traffic or convert more site visitors into customers. Resumes need to of courage speak to what the candidate can do for the company, not what the candidate is looking for, Tulloch says. “If you have a portfolio, project examples, or other demonstrable outcomes that can be viewed, include them as well.
These can be links in write thesis statement speech the resume or as a link in the email when you apply. It sounds counterproductive, but trying too hard to stand out can be problematic, too. Ironically, it's what everyone else is red badge trying to do, says Tony Warren, CEO at BreatheSimple. “I have spent too many Friday evenings going through piles of resumes all striving to be better or different but all having read the same books on 'how to write a good resume,' Warren says. So heavier paper, colored paper, gothic font headings, long waffling statements like, 'I am a roll-up-the-sleeves type of person ready to get to work early Monday mornings to Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory make a real difference.' Yawn! Warren warns that trying too hard can actually highlight already lackluster work experience. Instead of being unique for the sake of being unique, applicants should stand out because of what they offer. He echoes advice about focusing on essay, the value you bring to the employer. The fundamental problem with a resume is that it is food inc essay about the applicant and not about the red badge essay, company,” Warren says. Armin! 7. FOCUS ON WHAT YOU ACHIEVED, NOT WHAT YOU DID. One resume consultant (who preferred to remain anonymous) told us that applicants should focus on achievement instead of completion.
Sure, you've done things. But were you any good at them? To prove how amazing you are, don't just write about the tasks you completed. Instead, write about your achievements. An easy way to convey this is to start each bullet related to work experience with a verb. For example, if you want to show that you were 'involved in making a marketing plan,' write: 'Co-developed a marketing plan that delivered $500,000 in profit,' our source says. The worst resumes I have personally reviewed have included multiple spelling errors and relied too heavily on graphics, says Stultz. A candidate should rely heavily on spell check and be willing to proofread their resume several times to ensure accuracy. Even better, send it to a friend who can give it a glance with a pair of fresh eyes.
It can work in your favor to of courage essay get a little personal, too. Make sure you include accomplishments, volunteer experience, or other activities outside of work. Thesis Speech! Seeing a good cross-cut of extracurricular activities on of courage, a resume is a good indication that a candidate has initiative and thesis statement, drive to further their personal and red badge, professional development, says Stultz. Effects Of Video Games On Children! These individuals tend to be more passionate and of courage, dedicated to their work. This also makes you relatable. Statement Speech! If you can humanize yourself beyond Job Applicant No. 67, it'll make it easier for employers to envision talking to red badge essay you in person. Tailor your resume format to highlight your best experience and skills, says Maritza De La Cruz, a Senior Staff Recruiter for Combined Insurance. This may mean foregoing the usual chronological order. For example, a resume in a chronological format showcases what you have done most recently and Theory, moves backwards. A functional format more specifically highlights relevant skills and experience and of courage essay, may be a better format for someone looking to make a career change or with a gap in their employment history, De La Cruz says.
This one is so obvious it hurts, but I've come to learn the most obvious strategies are often forgotten, says McAdams. Questions! It doesn't matter what the red badge of courage essay, position is, from janitor to food inc essay rocket scientist, how much experience and familiarity you have with a given type of work is going to be clear. Hiring managers know what they want and they also know how to spot a fake or over-hyped resume. Essay! If you're skilled and thesis statement speech, qualified for the role, an experienced hiring manager will be able to tell. And even if a bloated resume helps you score an red badge of courage essay interview, it likely won't land you a second one, McAdams says. So be honest and armin, specific about your skills and experience and apply to positions you will be competent with. Essay! Beware of This New Phishing Scam Targeting Netflix Customers.
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The Red Badge of Courage Essay …
essay on of courage foreign aid The Power of write thesis, Independent Thinking. The Curse of Foreign Aid. Student Winner. Third Prize ($1000) 2.1. What is wealth. 2.2. How wealth emerges. 2.3.
How private property boots wealth. 3.1. A reinforcement of wealth creation. 3.2. Common criticisms. 3.3. Some empirical results. 4.1. Two kinds of interventionism. 4.2. African case. 5.1. Food and clothes. 5.4. National industry subsidizing. 5.5. Public Works.
#147;Is foreign aid the solution to red badge essay global poverty?#148; Today#146;s world economy is food inc essay filled with contrasts. While in red badge of courage, some regions we find people dying of starvation, in others the concern about consumption becoming too high to or bad essay be sustainable is taping shape. These sharp differences have prompted some populists and ideologists to blame the rich for the misery of the poor and to ask for international redistributions of wealth. It is red badge easier to find opulent societies guilty of having plundered underdeveloped communities than to explain why some people can prosper and other cannot. And it is also easier to food inc essay simply imagine that one can improve poor peoples#146; lives by red badge of courage essay removing wealth from speech one place and putting it elsewhere than implementing the ideas that one would have to develop after reflecting seriously. Thus if we want to analyse why some societies are poor and whether some proposals are consistent with wealth creation, we must begin to understand the underlying conditions that make this wealth possible. Therefore our essay will be organised in four sections. The first one is devoted to the definition of red badge of courage essay, wealth, its foundation and was andrew jackson president, its economic sources.
Afterwards, we will study which are the implications of globalization on the sources of wealth. Thirdly, we will examine why its conditions are not universally fulfilled and how this fact explains poverty. And finally we will criticize foreign aid as a mean to achieve development. 2.1 What is wealth? Human being act purposely to achieve ends. A human being needs means to fill the gap between his current state of affairs and essay, his desired state of affairs. Armin. As long as he obtains the proper means he shortens the subjective distance between his action and his end. We can thus say that an individual is richer than another if he is red badge of courage essay closer to fulfilling his ends, and this will depend on the quantity and the quality of speech, his means.
Under this perspective, wealth is the relative abundance of suitable means in relation to one#146;s ends. This may appear a very simple definition, but we can extract some important corollaries which distinguish it from red badge of courage essay other definitions of wealth, avoiding popular misinterpretations. First of Algebra Theory, all, wealth is of courage essay directly related to was andrew jackson a good or bad individual ends. One person can be richer than another if he can satisfy better his ends even with a smaller endowment of red badge of courage, means. Term Paper Questions. This does not mean that men without ends are the richest, but that one cannot consider that the of courage essay size of the wealth is equal to the size of the jackson a good essay endowment of red badge, properties. Effects. People with hard-to-realize ends need by definition more means to achieve them and red badge, thus one should not consider necessarily this greater abundance as a sign of higher wealth. In other words, action plans should be traced by armin the individuals who must perform them.
Obtaining the same good can represent little wealth to some and too much (too costly to be obtained) to of courage another. Secondly, one should not only consider the direct means that satisfy the write thesis statement speech ends, but also the entire production process that enables the achievement of those direct means. Action plans are so highly complex in that they involve many productive stages. Consumption goods are just the final stage and red badge essay, thus all previous stages that allow individuals to produce consumption goods are also considered wealth. Therefore, capital must be included in write statement, our definition.
But if we recall the previous point, we can understand that it must be capital designed through individual plans: the correct proportion between consumption goods and capital goods is given by individual time preference. Of Courage Essay. Forcing capital accumulation (or capital consumption) means banning the achievement of the food inc essay most valued ends and thus the destruction of red badge of courage, wealth. Thirdly, wealth depends on the availability of means; those which cannot be used by any agent should not be considered wealth. That obviously excludes from our definition such terms as #147;natural wealth#148;, which tries to food inc essay compare wealth with the abundance of natural resources. Of course, natural resources may be wealth, as far as they are needed to of courage essay fulfil one individual#146;s ends. However, only those natural resources which are currently available are wealth. World inhabitants are not richer by the fact that planet#146;s core is formed by iron and nickel. We cannot still extract those minerals and that makes them useless. Natural resources become wealth just as some individual controls them. This is in fact related to good our previous remark. We have to consider wealth as the whole chain of our plans: of course natural resources are wealth when we use them, but also those capital goods which open the red badge essay path for their availability.
A community can live on the hugest deposits of food inc essay, natural resources. But as long as they lack of the tools to exploit them, one should not count those resources as wealth. Until now, we have defined wealth and sketched some of its characteristics: it is of courage essay a set of available means inserted in Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory, the plans of an actor to fulfil his ends. From now on we are going to analyse which are the conditions that make possible its creation and reproduction. 2.2 How wealth emerges. We have already said that any material resource cannot be considered wealth unless it is available to an individual#146;s plan. We should distinguish between two kinds of of courage essay, availability: physical and write statement speech, legal availability. Red Badge. The first one refers to the material disposition of one mean; it is a factual relationship between the agent and the mean. The second one implies having ultimate decision-making powers. Legal availability may or may not coincide with physical availability.
We can find cases where the person who has material contact with the resource is the one who has had the power of deciding its use. But we can also have cases where the armin vit resume individual who has the material disposition is not the one who has decided its destiny (for instance, a worker who follows an entrepreneurial plan may have the physical availability but as long as he follows the of courage essay wishes of the entrepreneur, he lacks legal availability.) If we take a closer look, we realize that legal availability is not exactly equal to a right to decide. Effects Games On Children Essay. Insofar I want to omit any ethical analysis, I am not speaking about of courage essay who should have the legal availability, but about vit resume who actually has it. For example, a thief who eats a stolen loaf of bread has had the power of last resort decision over that good (and thus its legal availability). In other words, legal availability is completely related with effectively inserting one mean in our plans (subjective side), while physical availability refers just to the material use of the essay resource (objective side). We could define a private property system as a society where original physical availability gives rise to original legal availability, which also includes the power to be transferred (homesteading). Furthermore, those to whom the legal availability has been transferred must retain it either until it is further transferred or until the statement speech mean is red badge of courage consumed and perishes (enforceable voluntary agreements). If these two clauses are not fulfilled, we cannot speak properly of a private property system. Broadly speaking, when either homesteading or enforceable voluntary agreements fail, we have a third-way system and when both principles fail a socialist one. Our definitions are probably too superficial, but they highlight two kinds of Linear Algebra Theory, interventionism: partial and total.
The first one influences the assignment of legal availability (either at the beginning or in later stages) and essay, the second one places every single mean of a society under the power of some people who has neither homestead it nor acquired it by enforceable voluntary agreements. Because of we have stressed the role of availability in our definition of thesis statement speech, wealth, we must now raise some conclusive remarks on who will enjoy the wealth in each system: Private property system: People who make one resource available for its first time or who obtain that resource through a voluntary agreement have the red badge power to decide its use. Wealth includes all those means originally or derivatively acquired. The conclusion is pretty obvious.
A private property system is vit resume a prerequisite for red badge of courage essay wealth creation. Without homesteading and Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory, enforceable voluntary agreements there is no foundation for wealth, and almost every opportunity disappears or gets subjected to politicians#146; desires. 2.3. How private property boots wealth. Once we know that private property is a prerequisite for wealth creation, we have to red badge of courage explore the ways in which individuals arrive at that result in a private property system. First of all it is necessary to term recognize the fundamental role that cooperation#151;what is more usually named #147;division of labor#148;#151;plays. Cooperation and division of labor benefits its participants in at least three ways: economies of scale, diversification of abilities and specialization. Economies of of courage essay, scale refer just to that situation in which there are positive synergies from write statement cooperation. The output of two individuals working together is greater than the sum of their products when working in isolation. Essay. As division of labor goes, people can form associations to collaborate among themselves for increasing the was andrew a good or bad essay production of required means. In fact, there may be some products which cannot be obtained by red badge essay autistic individuals.
For instance, moving heavy objects, surgery with general anesthesia or read an or bad essay, original novel. In these cases, the economies of of courage, scale derived from the jackson a good or bad whole system of division of labor are virtually infinite: two null outcomes sum a positive one. Diversification of abilities stems from the differences in capabilities among men. Some people are more skilled at some task than others. If individual A needs a mean x to reach his ends but has plenty of difficulties to red badge of courage get it, while individual B, who can produce it easily, has several problems in or bad, obtaining mean y, whose production A mastered, it is sensible to them to red badge of courage essay cooperate. They both can profit from the a good or bad different abilities of red badge, other people. Even if I am very unskilled at a particular task, I still have options to achieve that task through cooperation. This leads us to the third benefit of division of labor: specialization. If people perform those tasks in which they are better, they could improve even further they skills and increase their productivity. People such as geniuses could devote their time to research, as they do not need to grow food, tailor their cloths and teach their children.
Other people may perfectly agree to provide them with those products in prospect of future technological developments. We do not need to restrict this analysis to the exchange of services, but we can generalize it as this process as an indirect exchange scheme, i.e. Effects. people create means, which are not directly needed for their own ends but for of courage other people#146;s. Specialization can evolve till systematic production of one basket of goods which are hoped to be sold in of video on children, the market. Everyone who wants to participate in this huge spontaneous organization#151;capitalists, workers, entrepreneurs or consumers#151;has to of courage find his place looking for profit opportunities. To do this people will employ economic calculation with historical market prices (as patterns of past exchanges) and good, their entrepreneurial sense. Decisions about red badge what to jackson essay produce (and what to red badge of courage essay consume), who to produce for (and who to buy from) and good questions, how to essay produce (and which are the conditions of the purchase) modify the of video games essay previous productive structure. In developed economic societies, division of labor is totally dependent on consumer needs as forecast by entrepreneurs and capitalists.
Trade of of courage, goods and services become the most powerful way by which cooperation and specialization are brought about. Without this free trade among individuals people would have to cooperate through the barter of their abilities. Food Inc Essay. Each person would have to find another person who could help him and who wanted something in what he could be helped by the first. Division of labor would be transitory: as soon as one contract expired, that production structure would disappear. Specialization would be very rudimentary and red badge of courage, the scope of cooperation would be limited to effects of video games on children essay the projects of the direct participants. What exchange allows is an increase of the size of the division of labor to every person that participates in the market, even without being aware of red badge essay, it, and to have individuals specialized in some production processes which have not been explicitly asked by Linear Algebra and Matrix anyone. Then we get to the third stage of economic development. When people know that they can sell some good continually in the market and buy other goods with the proceedings, it becomes profitable to reduce the opportunity cost of that productive activity in order to red badge of courage retain as much revenue as possible. In fact, sales depend on consumer#146;s willingness to buy and speech, that depends on offering some product better than other sellers. Insofar other people provide more suitable goods and services than us, sales will collapse and our income with them. Entrepreneurs are ready to immobilize part of their incomes in order to have better productive methods.
Capital allows them to incorporate more machines and technologies, to start new business and to devote time to research and develop better products which aim at consumer#146;s needs. Division of labor through exchange makes capital accumulation possible: people know that their task is to produce some goods and that their performance will be the better the red badge more capital they employ. They save part of their earnings to a good or bad essay invest in their previous production processes (amortization) or in of courage, new ones. This way, wealth is write thesis statement speech created in of courage essay, an asymptotic proportion. On the one hand, production of goods and services increases hugely#151;i.e. more ends being achieved; on the other, we have more intermediate goods which are also wealth because of the reasons so far explained. More capital not only means more present consumption goods, but also more future ones (capital goods are lastly financed with saved consumption goods that can be recovered through liquidations). Societies get richer as far as their proportion of consumers goods in relation to capital goods gets smaller, although its absolute number grows. Probably it is in the case of investment where the necessity of private property is food inc essay more clearly seen. People will only be disposed to spend resources in roundabout methods of red badge of courage, production that take a considerable time to mature if it is foreseeable that their proceeds will be retained by the owner. Otherwise, individuals will consume their incomes as soon as they obtained them. If private property is uncertain in the future, so will investment in the present.
3.1 A reinforcement of wealth creation. We have so far analyzed what is wealth and armin vit resume, how people organize themselves to create it. Now we will study how the phenomenon known as globalization affects our previous conclusions. Globalization is just an expansion of the extent of the division of labor, i.e. an increase in red badge of courage essay, cooperation among people, both in the number of participants and in term paper questions, the number of relationships. This change may have been motivated by several factors, such as reductions in transportation costs due to better technology, an essay, improvement of thesis, communications or a higher respect for private property (for instance, a reduction on of courage trade barriers means allowing more enforceable contractual agreements among people located in different countries). But in any case, the nature of globalization is the same wherever it comes about: the thesis statement speech spontaneous division of red badge, labor adapts itself to the new capitalists, workers, entrepreneurs and consumers and becomes more wealth productive. A deeper and questions, more extensive division of labor implies more economies of scale, wider range of essay, individual abilities and more opportunities for specialization. Since entrepreneurs face a greater demand from the speech new consumers, they can increase the size of their factories and reduce the average cost of production spreading it among more units. Lower averages costs mean also lower prices for consumers after competition drives them down.
A wider range of individual abilities diversifies the of courage essay qualities and quantities of write statement speech, suppliers: there are more people who can do more things. Very specific skills are more abundant and thus the bargaining power and red badge of courage essay, prices of specific local producers go down. Finally, thanks to the economies of scale and the greater number of abilities, specialization can be focused to thesis very concrete issues, increasing thus productivity and creativity. All this leads to lower prices and red badge essay, more diversified means: consumers can buy more and better commodities and thus reach more ends, i.e. Linear Algebra. more wealth is created. Increased trade among individuals is just the external and visible way in which this new division of labor manifests itself. However, before new trade patterns are developed, the exchanged commodities must be produced, what just can be done through changes in the structure of red badge, production. Labor and capital must be reassigned among productive branches and enterprises. When these companies are located in different countries, that process is usually called migrations and good paper questions, capital movements respectively. It is commonly asserted that we could expect out of this process a tendency toward the equalization of the incomes of factors of production.
But we should speak not about monetary incomes, but about subjective incomes. Employees not only look for higher wages that allow them to essay acquire more mean but also for other factors such as location, simplicity, physical effort, psychical motivation, altruism, etc. These characteristics are also wealth, as long as they affect the means with which to satisfy our ends. Those who dislike physical effort will be more pleased if they can achieve their objectives through a relaxing work instead. In fact, improving workplace conditions is another kind of was andrew or bad essay, remuneration that must be financed with capital. There is only one way by which wages can be increased without destroying wealth, this is by increasing labor productivity. Labor productivity can only be increased through capital, either by more capital accumulation or by incorporating technological advances in the form of red badge essay, capital goods. The more capital an entrepreneur has, the more productive methods that can be used and the higher wages that can be paid. Effects Games On Children Essay. However, capital accumulation is a very hard task. Capital is savings and to red badge essay save one has to restrict its consumption.
If production is very low savings will also be very low and thus capital accumulation will happen slowly. This is where capitalist enter into term paper, the picture. Red Badge. Capital profitability is determined by was andrew a good or bad president essay the rate of return, this is, profits over essay, capital invested. As far as profits are just revenues minus costs and wages are a very important part of the costs, hiring people who were earning a low salary increases capital rate of return. For instance, if I earn $11000 from vit resume my business and to run it I have to spend $10000 a year#150;out of which 5000 are wages#151;my rate of return is essay 10% (profits=1000, capital expenditure=10000). If I could hire people who are willing to work for vit resume half of the red badge previous wages, my rate of return pumps to 46%. The much higher profitability of the low wage scheme will push entrepreneurs to hire those people who are willing to work for half of the previous wages and was andrew jackson president, due to their competition, these wages will go up (and also high wages will tend to go down in order to find a work place). This is red badge of courage just wage arbitration among homogeneous workers. Entrepreneurs may have to incur in additional expenses in order to hire those low wage workers.
This can happen, for example, if it is necessary for the production center to of video relocate closer to where the people work. Likewise, we can illustrate it just changing the above numbers a bit. If entrepreneurs can only reach those workers by paying 1000 extra dollars, rate of return will be around 30%, a figure which is of courage essay lower than 46% but that it is write thesis statement still far higher than 10%. In other words, it is profitable to hire those low wage workers even with those expenses. Being that the case, low wage workers are not condemned to a slow capital accumulation process when capitalists are near. Red Badge Of Courage Essay. Entrepreneurs will hire those low wage workers thanks to their capital reserves and that will allow those workers to earn higher wages than they otherwise would earn. Up to this point, these workers can start saving increasing quantities of money and was andrew jackson or bad president, become themselves capitalists who continue the capital accumulation (and wealth creation) process. The case is the same when those who support the extra costs are not capitalists but entrepreneurs. With migrations entrepreneurs are not the ones who seek workers; it is the workers who seek entrepreneurs, and red badge, the ones assuming the costs Instead of food inc essay, capital looking for red badge essay lower wages, those earning low wages are looking for statement higher productivity. In any case, the capitalist#146;s seek for profits allows workers to reach a more diversified supply of labor opportunities which makes possible better combinations of their job preferences with higher wage rates.
The resulting division of labor system will encompass all the benefits studied in red badge of courage essay, the previous section but in a deeper form. This should help us to Algebra and Matrix clear one common misunderstanding related to red badge of courage the exceptional and unique character of globalization. Term Paper Questions. As a legacy of German historicism and Marxist theory of History, globalization is of courage essay seen as a new stage in human development that requires some ad hoc economic theory. On the and Matrix contrary, economic principles comprised in the previous section would be enough to describe globalization. There exist no particular economic laws which depend on historical contingencies. The prerequisite of private property and of courage essay, the profits from division of labor led by exchange and capital accumulation are an a priori truth apart from the concrete circumstances in which they take place. When the extent of the market increases, we just have a rescale of division of labor. Food Inc Essay. There is no modification and no exception in the underlying economic laws. 3.2 Common criticisms. To many people globalization is just a process by which a minority plunders the red badge of courage essay majority.
It is a zero-sum game in which losers outnumber by or bad far the winners. Our analysis has proved that this is not clearly the case; every participant in the increased division of labor derived from globalization benefits. Anyway, in red badge essay, order to give a more solid ground to our conclusions, we are going to address those critiques. The first misunderstanding comes from those who deny that division of labor is mutually beneficial in any case. If one person is armin better than another in everything, there would be no profitable exchange as far as the first individual can provide for himself all that he need. Red Badge Of Courage. As there will not be any specialization, the first individual will monopolize all the production and will exclude the second one from the division of labor system. Linear Algebra. We may call it #147;the absolute advantage theory of trade#148;. The doctrine was already proved fallacious by David Ricardo when he explained that international trade was governed by comparative and not absolute advantage. If individual A can produce 10 television sets or 3 cars in of courage, 12 hours and individual B 8 televisions and president essay, 2 cars, then if both work in isolation and try to diversify production, the maximum output achievable in essay, a day would be: Individual A: 10 television sets and 3 cars.
Individual B: 8 televisions sets and good term questions, 2 cars. Total output: 18 television sets and 5 cars. However if both cooperate and individual A specializes in red badge, TV production and individual B in write thesis statement, car production, total output is given by: Individual A: 20 television sets. Individual B: 4 cars. Total output: 20 television sets and red badge of courage, 4 cars. Now A can use their 10 extra cars to buy not only the third car that would have produced in isolation but also a forth one that was not available to him.
B on the same way can use his two extra cars to buy 10 television sets, which represent two more than those that could produce in isolation. Trade is mutually beneficial in physical terms for both individuals even when one of them does not have an absolute advantage in was andrew jackson or bad, any good. Essay. As they devote their time in those projects in which they are better, global productivity increases. This physicalist approach is however just a particular case of a more general one: division of labor is mutually beneficial with regard to subjective plans. Since time is scarce, every person must choose which activities to perform. Food Inc Essay. People will tend to essay concentrate on the most valued activities and effects on children essay, outsource less valued ones. Red Badge Essay. But to do that, any person must compare the Linear and Matrix Theory cost of acquiring that activity in the market (this is, hire another person to do it) with the cost of performing it by himself. As long as the cost of performing that activity by himself is an opportunity cost (not performing by himself other activities), the individual will have always to renounce to perform some activities. If the cost of being provided that non-performed activity by the market is inferior to the profits he derives from it, then there will be incentives for cooperation, even if that individual is absolutely superior in both tasks.
In other words, absolute advantage is not a handicap for social cooperation. Red Badge Of Courage Essay. Indeed, cooperation fosters wealth both by increasing productivity and by providing commodities which would not have been available otherwise. The other main criticism has many variants but one same root: it follows the Marxist idea that capital exploits labor. With this we can argue either that capital previously-hired workers or the newly hired ones. Let#146;s focus on the first idea. We have seen that in globalization there is a tendency toward the equalization of incomes for write thesis homogeneous factors of essay, production. Paper. This necessarily means that low remunerations will increase but also that high remunerations must decrease; i.e. Third-World workers will enjoy higher wages but #147;national#148; workers will suffer from lower salaries. The fallacy of this argumentation lies on the implicit assumption that the red badge essay only form of income for #147;national#148; workers is wages, what implies that national workers must remain national workers even when we are exporting capital (so they will not discover any profit opportunity for investing abroad). If being a capitalist becomes exceedingly profitable thanks to foreign low wage workers, there is no reason to suppose that national workers cannot invest part of their savings to hire foreign workers.
In spite of the decreasing in their own wages, they can obtain additional income coming from vit resume capital investments. For example, an red badge of courage essay, entrepreneur hires five high wage workers for food inc essay $10000 each and sells his output for $60000. The rate of return of this investment will be 10000/50000=20%. If this entrepreneur discovers that he can hire low wage workers for $1000 $, he will fire his five high wage workers obtaining a return of red badge of courage essay, 55000/5000=1100%. This is unmistakably a signal that more investment is needed in this sector and thus other capitalists and previous high wage workers can increase capital funds out of their savings.
For instance, the five workers might have saved $1500 each one from his last salary and hire these low wage workers for that price. Good Term. In that case, they could sell the output for $60000, obtaining a profit of $52000 and a return of 52500/7500=700%. The entrepreneur could decide to invest his funds elsewhere or bid for the low wage workers for a further higher salary. The first option will increase total output of the economy with respect to the previous situation (more wealth is now created). The second one would leave the of courage high wage workers with a new trade-off: to form a cooperative and compete with low wage workers or to become stockholders of a more capitalized enterprise that wants to enter in that sector.
In both cases, output will be increased and thus prices will be lower than otherwise. Finally, workers could also think not to be able to food inc essay compete in that sector, and of courage, thus to invest his savings in satisfying the vit resume additional demand that will come out red badge of the huge profits of his previous employer. Recall that when the entrepreneur hired high wage workers he obtained a profit of $10000 $, but now he is gaining $55000, this is 45000 extra dollars which will be devoted either to consumption or to savings. Paper Questions. Both decisions create an additional demand either for red badge consumption or for capital goods that could be satisfied by the investment of his previous employees. Of course, in every case previous high wage workers could still look for write statement speech another job which paid them a slightly lower salary with which to complement his investment returns. Newly, more output and red badge of courage essay, thus more wealth is created. We can summarize our conclusions in effects of video essay, the following scheme.
When one entrepreneur finds new low wage workers, fired ones can: 7.1. Compete for hiring low wage workers: The entrepreneur then increase the output in other sectors. 7.2. Invest in the same sector (cooperative or corporation): There is more output in the same sector. 7.3. Invest in the new sector that emerges from entrepreneurial profits: There is either more consumption or more capital goods. 7.4. Look for new jobs: More output in other sectors. As we see, the net result of the appearance of new workers is to increase total wealth: there is a greater quantity and variety of consumption and capital goods and then lower prices. Whether this wealth will be redistributed to workers in a higher proportion than their preceding income is a question that cannot be answered a priori.
The point is red badge of courage that if they act properly#151;by inserting themselves into the more complex division of labor system and aiming to solve other people#146;s needs#151;they can be clearly better off as there has been created more wealth. This conclusion is equally valid when we talk in aggregate terms. Capital exports just mean that there are plenty of opportunities for capital outside. Write Thesis Statement Speech. If workers want to remain just workers without trying to take advantage of red badge of courage, those opportunities, it is possible that, despite the fall in prices, they get worse off. However this would just represent a shortcoming in grasping which the necessities of people are: when there are individuals willing to of video games essay work for a low salary what is needed is more capital, not higher wages. The other common objection to globalization is just the opposite of this one. Capitalists still exploit workers, but this time foreign ones. The argument goes as follows: entrepreneurs invest in foreign low wage countries only as long as they wages remain low. When their wages begin to rise, capital goes outside the country (hot money) looking for other low wage zones.
This argument is much simplistic than the earlier. The implicit assumption is that there will always be enough lower wage workers to satisfy entrepreneurial (consumer) needs which will offset wage increases. Unfortunately, labor is the only real scarce factor of production and red badge of courage, as capital is accumulated, labor must receive increasing remunerations, at and Matrix Theory least in real terms. But even if we considered the of courage essay assumption true for a moment, the Linear Algebra Theory conclusion would be incorrect. In order to hire a worker an entrepreneur has to offer him a subjective income higher than the preceding one. The more this extra payment lasts the of courage more opportunities for saving the worker has. One entrepreneur could disinvest from one country after having stayed there five years, but during that period their workers could have become capitalists who invest by themselves (and this includes the was andrew jackson or bad president ability to hire that infinite bunch of lower wage workers that is red badge essay supposed to exist). 3.3 Some empirical results. Although we have shown a priori the intrinsic goodness of a global market economy, it may be interesting to refer to some data that illustrate our arguments.
Xavier Sala-i-Martin has performed some empirical research that show that the number of poor people#151;defined as those who earn less than $826 a year#151;has diminished from 1200 millions to term paper questions 800 in the period 1970-2000. The results are far more impressive if we take into account that world population has doubled in red badge of courage, that period and food inc essay, that thus poverty in relative terms has gone down from 37% of world population to 13%. These results are pretty similar to those of of courage, Surjit Bhalla who suggests that poverty#151;$2 a day#151;has fallen 60% to 23%. Furthermore, Sala-i-Martin also offers data regarding other indicators that point in the direction of growing wealth. Life expectancy has increased from 60 to effects of video games essay 67 years, child mortality has fallen from red badge of courage 10% to food inc essay 6%, literacy has grown from 64 to 80% and red badge of courage essay, access to potable water has risen from effects of video 25% to red badge of courage 80%. Both authors coincide in food inc essay, one point: there has been on part of the world which has not taken advantage from globalization, i.e.
Africa. For instance, Sala-i-Martin says that #147; We are living in a world which is not perfect, although it globally improves, but it is also a world in which Africa is a disaster. The question is who to blame: Africa or globalization #148;. Of Courage. Similarly, Bhalla states that: Zero 2$ is likely in all parts of the World in 2015, except in sub-Saharan Africa. Vit Resume. This region#146;s share of the world#146;s poor people is expected to rise from red badge essay 36% today to almost 90% in 2015. Our target in the next section will be to explain how wealth can be destroyed, looking at particular policies that have isolated African people from thesis statement globalization. 4.1 Two kinds of interventionism. Up to this point, we have studied which are the foundations and representations of wealth: private property and division of labor manifested through commodities exchanges and essay, capital investment. However we have also seen that in some parts of the term paper questions world#151;Africa#151;people has been systematically unable to create wealth.
The fundamental reason behind this fact is, as we have already seen, the red badge of courage essay systematic violation of property rights that blocks division of labor, exchange and Linear Algebra Theory, capital accumulation. This violation may come either from a State which explicitly abolishes private property or from a state of affairs in which legal availability is red badge essay not generally respected. In these cases people would lack incentives to cooperate in armin, a huge scale division of labor, as long as very long-term plans would be subjected to the arbitrary decision of another person or group of people. Systematic interventionism creates alternative networks of labor to those that would have prevailed in a free market. It tries to either impose one central plan or to red badge essay combine it with the questions supposed plans of its participants. Red Badge. During the armin vit resume time in which this alternative networks function, any other association is perceived as sabotage of the central plan: people who do not summit are hampering the collectivist organization. As we see, individuals cannot adjust their plans as they could made in of courage, a market economy. No more than the people who are endowed with the legal availability over good questions, all the essay resources is capable to modify the effects of video games on children essay individual#146;s position in the network. No profit opportunity can be detected precisely because no profit opportunity exists: individuals cannot follow their own plans and thus no one can find any end to of courage be satisfied.
Exchange cannot take place and capital accumulation makes no sense. It is the State who decides how much is food inc essay saved and consumed and how savings must be spent to create machines, materials and essay, other productive structures. Wealth destruction#151;poverty#151;with explicit interventionism is was andrew jackson clear. No individual plan can be realized and then almost no material structure can be considered wealth. Just those consumer goods that central planning board gives to people and which coincide by chance with some of their ends will lastly be considered wealth. Neither division of labor schemes nor productive structures could be considered wealth, since they block other higher ranked ends and means that could be achieved by individuals in absence of coercion. Asystematic interventionism is equally destructive of wealth, but its manifestation is a bit different. Of Courage. We may have a State whose discretionary behaviour lacks of a rule of action with respect to legal availability. In this context, people would be led by their expectations of coercion. If they foresee that they will be deprived in the future of the legal availability over their means, they will shorten their plans until the point in armin, which they hope to of courage essay be able to use their means. The reason is obvious: means only derive value from their ability to satisfy individual ends, if those means are stolen before they can be used, they lose all their value.
Shortening the number of stages in individual plans has a precautionary effect against coercion. If the period between means creation and means consumption is very short, asystematic violence is less likely to occur; it has less time to Linear Algebra and Matrix materialize. The longer the period of the plan, the higher the probability of asystematic interventionism to happen, even if we considered that a given government is not a priori very willing to coerce people. So far we can already say that the effect of asystematic interventionism is always to shorten the number of stages of people#146;s plans and we know that among the longer there are always more productive plans, which implies a narrow margin for social cooperation and for capital investment. When we fulfill our ends through the division of labor, we place other people#146;s ends as a mean of red badge of courage, ours. Food Inc Essay. This human cooperation can be done horizontally (an association of various people who try to satisfy other person#146;s ends) or vertically (I satisfy the needs of another person which in turn were the means for red badge of courage satisfying a third person ends). Asystematic interventionism affects both those horizontal associations with a high number of of video games, stages or vertical associations that by definition have more than one stage. The fact that the more time-consuming structures are the ones that are most damaged also implies that capital accumulation (which could be use to finance this time-consuming structure while they did not mature) will also be strongly diminished. The range of division of labor is greatly reduced and resources are normally consumed as one gets them because there is of courage essay no investment opportunity. A society can suffer both systematic and asystematic interventionism. The scope of the first one determines the extension of the division of labor: more systematic interventionism means a smaller division of effects games on children, labor organization.
The hardness and regularity of the second increases the uncertainty over legal availability and thus the complexity of the division of of courage essay, labor that remained outside systematic interventions. Although many interventionist policies fit our descriptions, we can give some very visual examples of both classes. Effects Of Video Games Essay. Taxes and regulations are kinds of systematic interventionism. Wars, inflation and expropriations are examples of the asystematic one. Taxes imply that some people spend wealth without having created it, i.e. there is red badge essay a complete loss of legal availability over resources. Games Essay. People have worked for of courage essay the government and paper, thus we may consider that all the efforts so devoted were part of a coercive plan conceived by the State. A 100% tax would mean socialism, this is, the complete planning of individual actions. Regulations force or prevent some actions to happen. In this sense, it is a sort of construction of society and cooperation. If people have to act in some way, they cannot act in another that may be more profitable for their plans.
If people must not act in some way, the potential area for cooperation is restricted. Wars may generate a huge uncertainty over the future legal availability of red badge of courage, resources, specially when defence competences have been expropriated and monopolized without giving individuals the Linear Algebra and Matrix possibility of red badge essay, choosing their most preferred defender. During a war, insecure people try to provide themselves as fast as possible with the statement speech most elementary consumption and protective goods. There is red badge of courage no place for long term investments. Inflation, as the food inc essay debasement of money, provokes a redistribution of the value of the currency, which complicates the red badge of courage possibility to food inc essay purchase of the desired consumption goods and which erodes savings. The consequences is clearly a tendency to buy consumption goods before its prices increase more and to transform savings into assets that do not loss value, even if they are very illiquid. Finally, expropriations mean the probability of losing a resource by governmental discretionary decision. Red Badge Essay. The higher the subjective probability, the faster one will be willing to sell or consume the resource.
Therefore, that means it will not enter into long-term plans. It is clear that any society that suffers from any of these diseases must suffer from wealth destruction (impoverishment). Now let examine how this analysis fits with Africa and how it can explain its situation. Jackson Essay. We will mainly use Heritage 2007 Index of Economic Freedom data: Taxes: Although there are countries with very high top rates, unfortunately it does not seem that this factor radically separates Third from First World.
This does not mean nevertheless that the red badge African tax system does not destroy wealth: every resource appropriated coercively by of video government as we have seen provokes this effect. African societies would do much better without it. If one had to sum up Africa#146;s main problem it would unquestionably be the lack of red badge of courage essay, respect for term paper questions property rights. Taxation, regulation, inflation and expropriation are clear attacks on private property that close any possibility for of courage essay Africa to insert in the international division of labor. Mauritius, Botswana and South Africa are the South-African countries whose population is good paper most prosperous and, according to Heritage, are also the three with more respect for property rights. We have identified a priori the disease. We have shown that it fits with reality. We thus know what the only solution for African societies is: transition to a full private property system. However, from many strata other solutions are proposed; we will devote our last section to analysis the viability of those ideas. Along this essay we have established that private property is both a sufficient and a necessary condition for wealth creation. It is sufficient because no other factor is needed to reconcile individual plan in a mutually beneficial cooperation scheme.
It is necessary because without it no action or policy will be able to create wealth. Notwithstanding voices can still be heard asking for a grand foreign aid program to help Africa develop. Their proponents generally do not explain the concrete ways in which this aid will foster wealth; it is just assumed that it will. Although for red badge a non-economist it might seem self-evident that money is wealth and that giving money to thesis speech people can achieve them to be prosperous, these judgements are doubtfully valid and consistent. The Western observer tends to think with his backward experience, i.e. assuming that money is of courage essay wealth because he has a bigger or smaller legal availability over armin, it. The reasoning should be much different if we took into account that Africa is not stuck by red badge of courage essay the lack of resources, but by the lack of private property. The same shortcoming that prevent African wealth creation, remove efficiency to any foreign aid, either private or public. It may be useful to food inc essay prove this point by examining the of courage ways in good term questions, which foreign aid could be used and of courage essay, what would be their consequences.
Before of that, it is necessary to clarify one point. I am not going to value whether foreign aid is of video on children useful for other legitimate purposes. My argumentation will just be concerned with development and red badge of courage, wealth creation, this is, with the ability of individuals to food inc essay fulfil increasing numbers of ends. Despite being against of courage public foreign aid, I do not want to questions question private charity#146;s movies. I will just show that if the purpose of the donor is to help African people to be able to create wealth, it will simply not work in absence of private property. 5.1 Food and red badge of courage, clothes. The most primary destiny of foreign aid is to buy food and clothes#151;as kinds of very basic products#151;to Africans. The relation of this use of aid with growth would be the following: starving people cannot prosper; if we feed them, they will have free time to create wealth. The reasoning has a problem of causality inversion. What we try to explain and Algebra Theory, solve is African poverty, one of whose signs is starvation. Essay. Africans are not poor because they starve, but they starve because they are poor.
Every rich society was some day in term paper questions, the past as poor as Africans are today, but however they did not get stuck. If Africans are so poor as to starve, the reasons for this must be found elsewhere besides the symptoms. In case this kind of of courage essay, policy were implemented, receivers of food would be able to survive while the free food provision continued. They would not be able to create wealth by the same reasons they had not been able in the past. Food Inc Essay. And as soon as aid stopped, starvation would continue. Consequently, spending foreign aid in this issue will not help African development.
Mainstream interventionist economists have already recognized in part our previous argument (mostly after the complete failure of foreign aid to promote growth). Giving food to Africans will not favor their development once that provision is cut. However, they do not relate it to private property insecurity but to educational barriers. The idea has been sum up in the motto #147; If you give a man a fish he will eat today but if you teach him to fish he#146;ll eat for a lifetime #148;. Foreign aid thus could be useful in red badge of courage essay, promoting education and in this way African development. This reasoning still fails to recognize what the true problem is. African people already know how to fish or how to grow their lands. Write Thesis. It would be naive to suppose that after centuries of having lived with the Nature they do not know anything. The true point is that despite knowing how to red badge of courage fish they do not fish or at least they do not fish enough. In other words, they do not use their knowledge to form economic plans.
And they do not do that due to the reasons we have already sketched: there is no l a private property system in Africa. Without private property there can be neither a truly productive division of Algebra and Matrix, labor (among fishermen) nor investments that assist them (ships, nets. ). No one want to put their very scarce resources in some projects that with high probability will be interrupted by force. Extensions of the argument are equally invalid. Educating technicians, physicians and other scientists will not attract foreign investment, for the reason that the red badge essay problem is not in the insufficient formation of African people, but in the regulatory framework. Africa has already a comparative advantage in costs that is armin vit resume not currently exploited by foreign companies because of that framework. Nothing would change with better education. In fact, the foreseeable consequence is that those scientists formed in Africa emigrate to of courage the First World, where they are required and where that kind of projects can be realized. A variant of the food case for foreign aid is the demand for better health care. According to this argument, diseases such as AIDS block any opportunity to prosperity. Linear Algebra. If Africans had better health, they could create wealth.
The argument might be plausible if healthy African population would be able to red badge of courage get richer, but this is not the case. Although diseases are a huge problem, they are not the problem that prevents many people#151;healthy and unhealthy#151;from fulfilling their ends. In fact, two of the richest African countries#151;Botswana and South Africa#151;are also two of the most affected by AIDS, whereas other very poor countries such as Congo have much lower AIDS infection rate. 5.4 National industry subsidizing. Another part of the economic literature thinks that a Third World problem is the lack of national industries which could sell in armin vit resume, national and international markets since they are immediately swept away by red badge of courage more efficient multinational corporations. Some of them defend infant industries tariffs to protect national markets and others propose to armin subsidize the industries in order to of courage compete in international ones; subsidies that could be paid with foreign aid. This argument completely misses the point.
Of course the lack of capital in Africa is an obstacle to the formation of competitive enterprises with a high performance. Theory. The process by which African people will be able to create their own multinational companies has already been studied: foreign capital would increase wages, out of which there could appear a saving-investment fund. Furthermore, as Africans became wealthier and solvent they could ask for foreign loans to essay start their own business. Financial markets would provide enough capital for the most ambitious projects. The problem is that foreign companies do not invest substantially in Africa because what have seen before. Africans have to enter in the international division of labor to supply now the armin vit resume goods and of courage, services which are required by consumers not by politicians. There is no point in effects games essay, forcing the appearance of industries that are far more inefficient that other competitors. Of Courage Essay. It would just be a complete waste of resources, whose effects would be similar to the food and clothes argument: Africans employed in subsidised industries would receive a net transfer of income, but they would not be able to spend it productively while private property is under attack. The last possible justification for foreign aid is public works. Government would be entitled to build all the infrastructures the country needs to wake up. Once the equipment could be used, African people and foreign companies would start investing thanks to the higher expected profitability of their projects.
The implicit assumption is that part of the poverty of Africa comes from its lack of some equipment, which only the State can provide. And this is the reason why it is false. Food Inc Essay. Profit opportunities in Africa would be out there if government did not hamper the market. It is simply fallacious that if government do not provide people with infrastructures nobody else would; precisely because satisfying that need is in itself a profit opportunity. But the red badge problem of this proposal is the same than in Linear Theory, previous cases.
If a private property system is not restored, no infrastructure would be of utility. Entrepreneurs will not be able to retain and control their gains and thus they will have no incentive to look for those gains. Governmental expenditure would moreover constitute a case of systematic interventionism that reduces the extent of the market and summits it to central planning orders. Resources would be allocated where the State says and not where consumers need, making more difficult its insertion in the international division of labor. We have so far studied what wealth is, how it emerges and why some societies are unable to create it.
The main conclusion has been that private property is of courage a sufficient and write thesis statement speech, a necessary condition for development. The second corollary is red badge of courage essay obviously that any other proposed policy will fail while this huge shortcoming is not solved. Likewise, we could say, following P. T. Bauer, that foreign aid is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for development: Foreign aid is good clearly not necessary for economic development, as is obvious for essay instance from the very existence of developed countries. All of these began as underdeveloped and progressed without foreign aid. Moreover, many underdeveloped countries have advanced very rapidly over the last half century or so without foreign aid. There are many such countries in the far east, south-east Asia, East and West Africa and games on children essay, Latin America. Red Badge Of Courage. Nor is foreign aid a sufficient condition. It cannot, for instance, promote development if a population at large is not interested in material advance, nor if it is Linear strongly attached to values and customs incompatible with material progress. All this implies that foreign aid is useless. But P. T. Red Badge Of Courage. Bauer was going a bit further in good term paper, the quote which opened this essay by saying that #147; Development aid, far from red badge essay being necessary to rescue poor societies from a vicious circle of write thesis, poverty, is far more likely to keep them in that state.#148;.
Could foreign aid be not only useless but also harmful? From the donor perspective it is crucial to distinguish between private and public aid. The first one, as far as it is red badge voluntary, cannot harm ex ante the a good or bad essay donor; it is his best choice. Public aid however is obtained through coercion, hampering the satisfaction of individual ends (destroying wealth). As P. T. Bauer once more stated it is #147; redistribution from poor taxpayers in rich countries to rich people in poor countries #148;.
From the receiver#146;s perspective it is necessary to distinguish whether he keeps the legal availability or not. Red Badge Essay. In the Algebra Theory first case, it is clear that every gift raises disposable wealth for the receiver, as long as the red badge of courage essay number of available means to satisfy his ends increases. However, if the government ultimately owns the aid, either public or private, the original receiver will not be able to thesis speech fit it into their plans and thus it could not be considered wealth at all. In fact, it will increase governmental power of red badge, aggression against private property, i.e. the root of on children essay, all evils. Many people think that receiving money can never be harmful, and that may be true as long as you control it.
But if that money feeds your master, it only red badge makes you become a bit more of a slave. There is no paradox in African people asking for the end of foreign aid or as the Kenyan economist James Shikwati puts it: Huge bureaucracies are financed (with the aid money), corruption and questions, complacency are promoted, Africans are taught to be beggars and not to be independent . And thus he claimed: For God#146;s Sake, Please Stop the Aid!  The following graph illustrates perfectly our reasoning: There is essay only one path to development: capitalism. What matters is not how much income does a country have during a given year, but whether people have the freedom to use that income in the pursuing of their ends. If they do, no foreign aid will be needed to good paper help them because their own skills combined with entrepreneurial seek will be enough. If they do not have this freedom, then not even all the of courage resources of the jackson or bad president world would allow them to prosper.
I hope that this paper helps to highlight this reality, so that Western piety stops harming third world people. Bauer, Peter, and Basil S. Yamey, #147;The Economics of essay, Under-developed Countries#148;, Cambridge University Press. Bhalla, Surjit, #147;Imagine There#146;s No Country: Poverty, Inequality and Growth in the Era of Globalization#148; Bohm-Bawerk, Eugen, #147;Capital and write thesis statement, Interest#148;, Libertarian Press. Hayek, Friedrich, #147;Prices and Production#148;, George Routledge Sons. Hazlitt, Henry, #147;Man vs. The Welfare State#148;, Arlington House. Hazlitt, Henry, #147;The Conquest of red badge of courage essay, Poverty#148;, Foundation for Economic Education. Heritage Foundation, 2007 Index of Economic Freedom. Huerta de Soto, #147;Money, Bank Credit and Economic Cycles#148;, Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Mises, Ludwig von, #147;Human Action#148;, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Reisman, George, #147;Capitalism#148;, Jameson Books. Roberts, Paul Craig Schumer Charles, #147;Second Thoughts on Free Trade#148; http://www.vdare.com/roberts/second_thoughts.htm. Rothbard, Murray, #147;Man, Economy State#148;, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, #147;Globalizacion y Reduccion de la Pobreza#148;, FAES. Shikwati, James, #147;Interview in of video games, Der Spiegel#148;, http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,druck-363663,00.html. Strigl, Richard von, #147;Capital and Production#148;, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Wickman Kurt, #147;Whither the Common Agricultural Policy#148;, Timbro.  We can say that there is essay no uncertainty of future aggression over individual plans. Food Inc Essay. People decide its length just considering the return, the time preference and other risks not related with plundering.  For every capital good, there must be a definite market in which firms buy and sell that good (. ) Under one owner or one cartel for the whole productive system, there would be no possible areas of calculation at red badge of courage essay all, and therefore complete economic chaos would prevail.
Murray Rothbard, Man Economy and write thesis, State, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute, p. 613-614.  See Bohm-Bawerk, Capital and Interest, Libertarian Press.  See Hayek#146;s Prices and Production, George Routledge Sons.  We follow closely Adam Smith and George Reisman#146;s definition: . George Reisman, Globalization: The Long-Run Big Picture. Red Badge Of Courage Essay. http://www.mises.org/story/2361.  Because entrepreneurs compete with other entrepreneurs for the factors of production, they can either offer higher wages or better conditions of labor. An entrepreneur may not be able to hire workers just through wages increases if their labor conditions are very disliking.  Of course, wages could also be increased out of capital accumulation in a non-market economy; i.e. instead of investing, replacing capital structure or remunerating capitalists, salaries are increased. Wherever the sources of capital reduction come, the effect is a clear destruction of wealth. If investing is restrained, some entrepreneurial plans are forbidden and some wealth will not arise. If capital is not replaced, capital goods get depreciated (and we included capital goods as part of the wealth).
And if capitalists are not remunerated or less remunerated, part of their plans will not be fulfilled (wealth destruction) and furthermore their savings will decrease (what leads toward the depreciation of part of the term paper questions capital stock).  Revenues: 11000, costs: 7500, profits: 3500. Rate of return=3500/7500=46%  Normally we can expect that the one who moves first gests the greater advantage. If capitalists assumes the cost of hiring the workers he will have a wider set of options, while if it is the worker capitalist will only red badge profit passively. Armin Vit Resume. For example, if a company moves to a village of 100 low wage workers, it can hire the 100% of the red badge essay population for the very low wage. If the company does not move and effects essay, only 10 villagers travel to another village of high wage workers, the company will be able to red badge of courage essay hire them but a much higher wage rate than before. This is why immigrants who move to First World usually earn higher wages than those who stay in of video on children essay, their countries and are hired by first world companies.  As people grow richer, they can afford to buy other goods and services that only interest them when some other needs have been fulfilled. Red Badge Essay. One could recognize in this proposition some flavor of Maslow pyramid of needs, which more or less establishes that some ends will only be pursued when other more basic ends has been achieved. Really, economic theory has a more powerful tool to understand these processes.
Diminishing marginal utility shows that increases in the number of a homogeneous mean are directed to armin vit resume lower-valued ends. Red Badge Of Courage Essay. Increases in the number of a good will reduce the value of the extra units and then the productivity and remuneration of factors of production employed in it. Linear Algebra Theory. After the increase in the quantity of this mean (increase in red badge, wealth) other uses for factors of production become relatively more profitable than before.  This theory was supported by Paul Craig Roberts and Charles Schumer who argued that comparative advantage only hold with two contidions: free internal mobility for factors of food inc essay, production but external immobility. Otherwise, rich countries will export capital and internal productivity will fall, decreasing wages. See #147;Second Thoughts on Free Trade#148;, New York Times, 6 January 2004: http://www.vdare.com/roberts/second_thoughts.htm.  It is our labor and our time that are fundamentally scarce, not land or natural resources. Red Badge Essay. It is jackson a good or bad our labor and our time that we fundamentally need to save, not land or natural resources . George Reisman, Capitalism, p. Red Badge Essay. 71, Jameson Books.
 In fact the problem of thesis statement speech, hot money (fast capital outflows) is not associated with rising wages, but with inflation : If people want to #147;freeze#148; the money, one just have to create a proper financial environment in which it is possible to invest comfortably. Of Courage. This environment means: a gold coin that cannot be devaluated, the complete separation of money and capital markets according to the strictest principles of liquidity, budget balance and Theory, the respect for red badge essay the general principle of law, i.e. Food Inc Essay. fulfillment of agreements and red badge of courage essay, debt satisfaction through the issue of the real values. One can be sure that in this context there would no be any crisis, devaluation and was andrew jackson a good or bad essay, hot money. Jose Ignacio del Castillo, Dinero caliente y globalizacion: http://www.liberalismo.org/articulo/174/  Globalizacion y reduccion de la pobreza, Xavier Sala-i-Martin, FAES.  Surjit Bhalla, Imagine There#146;s No Country: Poverty, Inequality and Growth in red badge of courage, the Era of Globalization, p. 172: http://www.iie.com/publications/chapters_preview/348/10iie3489.pdf.  See Capital and Production by term paper questions Richard von Strigl, Ludwig von Mises Institue.  Of course we are aware that Africa is a very heterogeneous region and that not every problem affects the whole African societies. However, these problems do explain a important part of the essay poverty of the countries that suffered or still suffer them and in all cases are African countries.
 For instance, Chad has a 65% top income tax rate and 45% top corporate tax rate. Ivory Coast 60% and 35%. Togo 55% and 37%. And the Republic of food inc essay, Congo 50% and 38%.  For example, the Swedish think tank Timbro estimates that EU consumers pay roughly 80#150;100 % more for their food than would be the case in a mature free-market regime. Timbro, Whither the European Agricultural Policy? www.timbro.se/bokhandel/pdf/000011.pdf.  233 days in red badge essay, Guinea-Bissau, 155 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 136 days in Equatorial Guinea, 124 in Angola, 113 in Mozambique or 96 in Zimbabwe.  Zimbabwe: The government#146;s increasingly hostile attitude toward foreign investment and was andrew jackson a good president essay, its support for economic nationalism have led to red badge growing cronyism and corruption. Expropriation is very common. Jackson Or Bad President Essay. The government controls foreign exchange. Foreign exchange accounts are subject to government approval and restrictions.
Payments and of courage essay, transfers are subject to government approval and numerous restrictions, and all outward capital transactions are controlled. Angola: Capital and vit resume, money market transactions, capital repatriation, real estate transactions, and personal capital movements are subject to strict controls. In most instances, these transactions require central bank approval and/or licensing. Republic of red badge of courage, Congo: Residents may not hold foreign exchange accounts, but companies can hold foreign exchange accounts with special approval. Non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts subject to government approval. Sierra Leone: Non-citizens and foreign investors are not permitted to food inc essay participate in certain economic activities. Both residents and non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts, subject to some restrictions.
Ethiopia: Foreign exchange accounts, payments, and current transfers are subject to of courage controls and restrictions. There are significant controls on food inc essay capital transactions. All investments must be approved and certified by the government.  Many African countries (such as Guinea-Bissau, Chad and Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe) #147; operate under highly restrictive employment regulations that hinder employment and productivity growth #148;. The non-salary cost of employing a worker is normally high. Senegal has rigid #147; regulations related to increasing or contracting the number of work hours #148;.
Cameroon #147; labor legislation mandates retraining or replacement before firing a worker #148;. And Burkina Faso forbids #147; night and weekend work #148;.  Here we have a non-exhaustive list of essay, most recent conflicts: Ethiopian Civil War (1974-1991) Angolan Civil War (1974-2002), Mozambican Civil War (1977-2002), Uganda-Tanzania War (1978-1979), First Chadian Civil War (1979-1982), Ugandan Civil War (1982-1986), Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), Somali Civil War (1988-to date), First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996), Rwanda Civil War (1990-1994), Algerian Civil War (1991-2002), Sierra Leone Civil War (1991-2002), First Congo War (1996-1997), Guinea-Bissau Civil War (1998-1999), Etiophia-Eriteria War (1998-2003), Second Congo War (1998-2003), Second Liberian Civil War (1999-2003), Second Chadian Civil War (2005-to date).  Zimbabwe: 267%, Angola: 34#146;8%, Guines: 26#146;3%, Zambia: 18#146;5%, Madagascar: 15#146;6%, Ghana: 15#146;6%, Burma: 15%, Nigeria: 15%.  Namibia: Expropriating land from paper white farm owners is now official policy.
The government expropriated three large farms at the end of 2005 and by essay mid-2006 had begun to offer the land for resettlement. Burundi: Private property is subject to government expropriation and armed banditry. Zimbabwe: Expropriation is common as the political executive pushes forward with its resource-redistribution-by-angry-mob economic plan.  Per capita income in Mauritius is food inc essay $13500, in red badge of courage, Botswana $11400 and in food inc essay, South Africa $13000. The author gives reasons pretty similar to ours: Money was spent on current spending and public consumption#151;which, in of courage essay, turn, led to a rapidly growing public sector in the economy. Needless to say, this strengthened other socialist tendencies in the economy and investment became, in armin vit resume, many developing countries, mainly a government activity. In addition, aid boosted fiscal budgets and led to a rapidly growing number of parastatals and state-owned enterprises. Red Badge Of Courage Essay. Largely supported by armin the donor community at the time, these soon became arenas of of courage essay, corruption and this corruption spread like wildfire to other parts of the society. The tragedy of aid, as been shown in numerous evaluations and by World Bank research, is food inc essay that donors are part of the problem of corruption; aid often underpins corruption, and higher aid levels tend to erode the governance structure of poor countries. In other words, donors have failed to follow the essay chief principle of the armin Hippocratic oath: do no harm!
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